The Globalization of Knowledge-Intensive Services
The globalization of services plays an important role in the general process of the globalization of science, technology and innovation. Liberalization and advances in information and communication technologies has transformed knowledge-intensive services - not simply improving their trade prospects, but altering how industrial activities are conducted, integrating services and goods and contributing to the unbundling of services activities, their outsourcing and offshoring. These processes allow multiple points of entry for new types of organization, including the expansion of new knowledge-intensive service activities and the development of new international service suppliers. This has implications both for innovations in these activities, and for their role in contributing to innovation systems around the world
The thirty second issue of the collection includes two sections: «Theoretical problems of economics and institutional reforms» and «Applied problems and practice of institutional reforms in Russia
The paper suggests the econometric analysis of determinants of demand for and supply of personalized financial services in Russia. The study is based on surveys of providers and business customers of financial services that were conducted by Institute of Statistical Studies and Economics on Knowledge of NRU HSE together with ROMIR research company in 2007–2013. Empirical models support the hypothesis about domination of standardized financial services supply at Russian market. Their providers, though highly innovative in general, tend to generate replicable financial innovations. Russian customers thus have but limited experience with customized financial services. Nevertheless as far as they use services more intensively, their demand for personalized solutions increases. Within this framework Russian financial companies should prepare for meeting the increscent quality competition by diversification of standardized services in the short run and by personalization of services in the medium run.
The EU has the most developed liberalization mechanism in services trade within the framework of an economic bloc. On the basis internal market of the European Union there are four complementary principles: non-discrimination, national origin, mutual recognition and harmonization. The system of supranational institutions, which decisions are binding upon member states, contributes to a high level of services liberalization in the EU. However, the creation of a single market for services hasn’t completed at all. The reasons are following: not all basic for single market principles are fully applied, and a service is a very specific object for international trade. Financial - economic crisis caused a new wave of protectionism in different countries, which has reflected in the preservation and the emergence of new barriers to trade in services within the EU. Integration of services in the Union is accompanied by important trade initiatives at the multilateral level. In the World Trade Organization EU countries negotiate a new agreement on trade in services, and offer provisions which providing transparency, deepening liberalization and investor protection for foreign investors in the market, will also complement and foster the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) EU - USA. Russia is only the fourth most important partner in trade in services for the EU. At the same time the European Union remains a key partner in trade in services, as well as in trade in goods for Russia. Concerning this trade economic relations there is a considerable potential for growth for both countries.
In this paper we analyse the influence of innovation drivers and barriers on the introduction of various types of innovation by knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) companies. The analysis based on a survey of 449 Russian companies that was conducted in 2015. It was found that different types of innovation (technological, marketing, and organisational) are influenced by different drivers and barriers.
This book introduces a 'Big History' perspective to understand the acceleration of social, technological and economic trends towards a near-term singularity, marking a radical turning point in the evolution of our planet. It traces the emergence of accelerating innovation rates through global history and highlights major historical transformations throughout the evolution of life, humans, and civilization. The authors pursue an interdisciplinary approach, also drawing on concepts from physics and evolutionary biology, to offer potential models of the underlying mechanisms driving this acceleration, along with potential clues on how it might progress. The contributions gathered here are divided into five parts, the first of which studies historical mega-trends in relation to a variety of aspects including technology, population, energy, and information. The second part is dedicated to a variety of models that can help understand the potential mechanisms, and support extrapolation. In turn, the third part explores various potential future scenarios, along with the paths and decisions that are required. The fourth part presents philosophical perspectives on the potential deeper meaning and implications of the trend towards singularity, while the fifth and last part discusses the implications of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). Given its scope, the book will appeal to scholars from various disciplines interested in historical trends, technological change and evolutionary processes.
This paper reviews the share of the Russian sector of knowledge-intensive services in the global market. The dynamics, structure, and geography of import–export operations in this sector is analyzed. The effectiveness of measures aimed at incentivizing the Russian export of knowledge-intensive services is assessed from the perspective of foreign trade institutions and tax mechanisms.
This paper focuses on coproduction of knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) and the impact it causes on their innovation activity. Coproduction refers to the customer engagement in one or more stages of the services production process. Although coproduction and value co-creation are close concepts and very often are used interchangeably, significant differences between these concepts exist as the latter covers a wider range of provider-client interaction during consumption and usage stages. While value co-creation is related to the development of the customer experience, coproduction is devoted to the creation of the service offering itself. According to the service-dominant logic, which is the most common framework in this field, customer is always a co-creator of value, while his involvement in coproduction is optional. This paper aims at studying whether those KIBS that involve their customers in coproduction are more innovative. The research model includes a set of innovation drivers like human capital, advertising expenditures, the existence of multiregional branch network and standardization as well as the coproduction measure. This model was empirically tested using a dataset of 441 KIBS enterprises in Russia. The results show that coproduction have a strong positive effect on the implementation of both technological and non-technological innovations in KIBS. It means that innovation-oriented KIBS may benefit from developing coproduction-based strategies. These findings contribute to both innovation management and KIBS studies and provide opportunities for future research in both fields