Исправлять или направлять: к вопросу об ошибках в устной речи студентов и методах работы с ними
The solution for the Lost Tram problem.
The paper focuses on typical mystakes in writenn speech made by first-year students learning a new register of their native language. Interpretation of the reasons for these 'risk points' in vocabulary and grammar characteristic of contemporary Russian speech is given. Mistakes in a written text can be different. Primary mistakes are caused by the lack of competence, while secondary mistakes result from author’s attempt to correct the text. The secondary mistakes often arise when the author thinks over different ways to express his/her idea. In this situation, mistakes are caused by the conflict of different formulations. The secondary mistakes are evidences of author’s high competence. Authors generally are able to correct these mistakes and find good variants to replace the wrong word or expression. One of the main tasks of the courses in Russian language is to encourage students to work with texts, look for the best formulations for their ideas.
The article looks into cases where pronoun "to" in the function of compound conjunction "Korda... To" is perceived as a proper or improper one. Semantic conditions provoking deviation from speech standards include temporal inversion of situations, the unexpectedness of results, and incompatibility of events described in the main and subordinate clauses. Contextual factors influencing our perception of a statement with "Korda... To" as a false one, include the repetition of subject, negation or imperative in the main clause, and the contradiction between aspectual characteristics of the predicates.
Errors in implicative theories coming from binary data are studied. First, two classes of errors that may affect implicative theories are singled out. Two approaches for finding errors of these classes are proposed, both of them based on methods of Formal Concept Analysis. The first approach uses the cardinality minimal (canonical or Duquenne–Guigues) implication base. The construction of such a base is computationally intractable. Using an alternative approach one checks possible errors on the fly in polynomial time via computing closures of subsets of attributes. Both approaches are interactive, based on questions about the validity of certain implications. Results of computer experiments are presented and discussed.
The features of operation of the inductive transducers. The algorithm of correction of non-linearity and hysteresis of conversion function of inductive transducers. A virtual instrument for the implementation of the proposed algorithm. Experimental research on the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm using a differential inductive transducer of linear displacement.