We propose a novel machine-learning-based approach to detect bid leakage in first-price sealed-bid auctions. We extract and analyze the data on more than 1.4 million Russian procurement auctions between 2014 and 2018. As bid leakage in each particular auction is tacit, the direct classification is impossible. Instead, we reduce the problem of bid leakage detection to Positive-Unlabeled Classification. The key idea is to regard the losing participants as fair and the winners as possibly corrupted. This allows us to estimate the prior probability of bid leakage in the sample, as well as the posterior probability of bid leakage for each specific auction. We find that at least 16% of auctions are exposed to bid leakage. Bid leakage is more likely in auctions with a higher reserve price, lower number of bidders and lower price fall, and where the winning bid is received in the last hour before the deadline.
The manual consists of theoretical and practical parts. In the theoretical part, the essence and content of corruption as a social and legal phenomenon and its criminal and legal feature are revealed, the characteristic of combating corruption as a management system and the system itself as an object of anti-corruption policy is given. In each section of the theoretical part, questions for self-examination and creative thinking are formulated, which in most cases represent a problem of an analytical nature.
In the practical part, the issues of the discussion plan related to the systematization of knowledge of the new scientific branch - corrupciology, as well as the problem of corruption behavior are highlighted. Analytical tasks are formulated.
Informal relations (guanxi) are an integral part of the Chinese society. Despite globalization in cultural and spiritual sense, China differs significantly from Europe and America. Sometimes in the modern Chinese society this kind of relations is perceived negatively meaning corruption and bribery. In the first half of the XX century corruption and the inefficient system of state administration made a social-economic situation in the country worse and led to the downfall of the Qing dynasty. Having come into power the Communist Party of China tried to destroy the traditional Chinese family and the system of relations but after the beginning of the policy of reforms and openness in 1978 this system of relations became needed again. The goal of the article is to show the main differences between corruption and guanxi. For better understanding the author gives examples, which show clearly, what informal relations in the People’s Republic of China are.
Introduction: the article considers a controversial issue about introduction of such type of punishment as confiscation of property as a measure of combating corruption-related crimes. Purpose: the authors analyse and compare different approaches to defining legal nature of confiscation of property. Methods: the methodological framework of the research is based on a set of methods of scientific cognition, among which the dialectic method is the major one. The authors use general scientific methods (dialectics, analysis and synthesis, abstraction and concretization) and methods specific to legal science (technical, comparative legal). Special attention is paid to the comparative and systemic methods of research. Results: the authors view corruption as a serious threat for the system of public authority in the Russian Federation. Corruption does not only mean primitive kinds of bribery and elementary abuse. Combating corruption-related crimes requires taking complex measures of different character, including improvement of criminal legislation and enforcement practice, particularly improvement of the effectiveness of administering punishments for persons guilty of committing such crimes...
The article is devoted to specific issues of implementation of preventive provisions of the UN Convention against corruption in the Russian administrative legislation. The General assessment of the corresponding legal norms is given, the main novelties of the legislation, possible problems of their implementation are analyzed