Познающее тело - движущийся ум: рождение и развитие парадигмы
The phenomenon of communication as a manifestation of complexity of interacting creatures. Communication is considered not as a privilege of a human being; it is shown that it is rooted in the world of living nature, it has an evolutionary origins. Communicative complexity is exposed by such concepts as flexibility, constructing, intersubjectivity, participatory sense-making, empathy, synergy, mutual incorporation and co-emergence of creatures which enter the process of communication. Understanding of communication from the position of the conception of enactivism allows disclosing some substantial aspects of the constructivist character of communicative interaction.
According to embodied cognition theory, speech is largely based on the body motor and sensory experience. The question that is crucial for our understanding of the origin of language is how our brain transforms sensory-motor experience into word meaning. We have developed an auditory-motor experimental procedure that allowed investigating neural underpinning of word meaning acquisition by way of associative "trial-and-error" learning that mimics important aspects of natural word learning. Participants were presented with eight pseudowords; four of them were assigned to specific body part movements during the course of learning – through commencing actions by one of a participant’s left or right extremities and receiving a feedback. The other pseudowords did not require actions and thus were used as controls. A magnetoencephalogram was recorded during passive listening to the pseudowords before and after the learning. The cortical sources of the magnetic evoked responses were reconstructed using distributed source modeling. The learning of novel word meanings through word-action associations selectively increased neural specificity for these words in the auditory parabelt areas responsible for spectrotemporal analysis, as well as in articulatory areas, both located in the left hemisphere. The extent of neural changes was linked to the degree of language learning, specifically implicating the physiological contribution of the left perisylvian cortex in the speech learning success.
Enactivism as a radical conceptual shift in non-classical epistemology and in cognitive science is under consideration in the monograph. Consciousness is viewed as active and interactive, embodied and situated, its cognitive activity is carried out by in-building into a cognizing environment, i.e. by enacting a surrounding medium. Some prerequisites of emergence and development these notions are traced in studies of G. Berkeley, D. Hume, H. Bergson. The recent contributions of Francisco Varela, Evan Thompson, Alva Noë in the development of enactivism are considered as well. Enactivism is treated as a new form of constructivism in epistemology. In its conceptual frames, the mind-body problem, the problem of subject and object of cognition, the problem of connection of cognition with action can be solved in a non-traditional way. The book is addressed to specialists in epistemology and in philosophy of science as well as to all who is interested in the modern trends of development of philosophy.
The theory of embodied cognition suggests that word meaning resides on the motor and sensory body experience. In order to understand the nature of human language, it is important to decipher how the brain links word meaning with sensory-motor experience. We developed an experimental procedure that allowed investigating acquisition of word meaning by way of rapid associative trial-and-error learning. Eight pseudowords were presented to the participants; four of them were assigned to left and right hand and foot movements, while the other pseudowords did not require actions and were used as controls. Participants were instructed to learn the relations between the pseudowords and actions through a trial-and-error motor learning procedure. Auditory feedback was delivered on each trial informing whether response was correct or erroneous. Magnetoencephalogram was recorded during passive listening of the pseudowords before and after learning. The cortical sources of the magnetic evoked responses were reconstructed using distributed source modeling (MNE software). Neural responses to newly learnt words compared to control pseudowords were significantly enhanced in temporal and frontal cortical regions surrounding the Sylvan fissure of the left hemisphere. This activation was inversely related to the number of trials needed for participants to reach the learning threshold. Thus, our findings revealed a neural signature of rapid associative learning of word meaning and highlighted the role of sensory-motor transformation for association-grounded word semantics.
Supported by RFBR grant 17-29-02168.