Об изменениях трудовых ценностей российского населения
This study contributes to the literature on heterogeneous self-employment by investigating the diversity of work motivation. Using two samples obtained from freelancers, who participate in online freelance marketplaces, we analyze the relationship between individual work values and self-employment situations. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed four value dimensions: (1) intrinsic, (2) social, (3) comfort, and (4) security. Using multinomial logistic regression, we found that people who work exclusively as freelancers, moonlighters who also hold regular jobs, and entrepreneurs who also run small businesses have distinct sets of work values. Genuine freelancers ignore security and social values, but seek intrinsic rewards and comfort to balance work and life. Entrepreneurs show the least preference for security, do not appreciate comfort, but seek intrinsic and social job rewards. Moonlighters show the highest preference for security, value social rewards, but ignore intrinsic rewards and comfort. Although the study deals with the self-employed, it also sheds light on the general association between work values and jobs.
Person-organization fit (P-O fit) is often measured by the congruence of a person’s values and the values that he or she ascribes to the organization. A popular instrument used in this context is the Organizational Culture Profile (OCP; O’Reilly, Chatman, & Caldwell, 1991). The OCP uses 54 items that form eight factors in exploratory factor analysis. We investigate the extent to which the OCP can be embedded into Schwartz’s Theory of Universals in Values (TUV) that is formulated in terms of a circumplex in a two-dimensional plane. To address this question, we develop a nonstandard multidimensional scaling (MDS) method that enforces a TUV-based axial regionality onto the solution space together with a permutation test that assesses the consistency of the side constraints with the MDS representation. We find that the OCP can indeed be embedded into the TUV. The practical implication is that P-O fit can be assessed more simply by the congruence of the person’s and the organization’s positions on two value dimensions: risk versus rules and results versus relations.
The objective of the paper is to reveal сross-country and gender differences in values and the actualization of three achievement motives across the world: namely, high earnings, career growth and interesting work. Achievement motivation contributes to improving the quality of work and thus contributes to both the growth of the welfare of the worker and the economic growth of the country. In previous studies, it was shown that the achievement motives are more widespread among men, and it is easier for men to put these motives into practice. At the same time, it is expected that in countries with high levels of individualism, GDP per capita and gender equality, women would show more interest toward work and thus have more desire to achieve. In our work, we have tested this hypothesis. The International Social Survey Program (2015) serves as a dataset, and the sample includes the employees. Multi-level logistic regression analysis showed that the motives for high income and career growth are more important for men, while the motive of interesting work is of higher significance for women. However, interesting work is more important for women in almost all countries, whereas higher importance of income and career motivation for men is observed only in some countries. At the same time, the motives for high income and a good career are more attractive to men than women, and there was no gender difference in the realization of the motive for interesting work. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, the gender gap, both in the importance of high income and career growth and in the success of their realization turned out to be higher in countries with high levels of individualism, GDP per capita and gender equality than in less wealthy countries with opposite characteristics. Thus, higher rates of individualism, economic well-being and gender equality do not necessarily lead to the like-mindedness of men and women in achievement motives and the equality of their opportunities in the labor market.
A specific form of informal employment is presented by electronic freelancers, e.g. self-employed professionals working remotely via the Internet. Andrey Shevchuk and Denis Strebkov launched Russian Freelance Survey (RFS) that brought more than 10,000 usable responses in each of two waves in 2008 and 2010, making RFS one of the largest freelance surveys in the world. Using these unique data sets, the authors describe the main groups involved in the Russian-speaking e-lance market and demonstrate how they cope with the high level of informality of institutional arrangements and opportunistic behaviour of market actors.