Об изменениях трудовых ценностей российского населения
This study contributes to the literature on heterogeneous self-employment by investigating the diversity of work motivation. Using two samples obtained from freelancers, who participate in online freelance marketplaces, we analyze the relationship between individual work values and self-employment situations. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed four value dimensions: (1) intrinsic, (2) social, (3) comfort, and (4) security. Using multinomial logistic regression, we found that people who work exclusively as freelancers, moonlighters who also hold regular jobs, and entrepreneurs who also run small businesses have distinct sets of work values. Genuine freelancers ignore security and social values, but seek intrinsic rewards and comfort to balance work and life. Entrepreneurs show the least preference for security, do not appreciate comfort, but seek intrinsic and social job rewards. Moonlighters show the highest preference for security, value social rewards, but ignore intrinsic rewards and comfort. Although the study deals with the self-employed, it also sheds light on the general association between work values and jobs.
Person-organization fit (P-O fit) is often measured by the congruence of a person’s values and the values that he or she ascribes to the organization. A popular instrument used in this context is the Organizational Culture Profile (OCP; O’Reilly, Chatman, & Caldwell, 1991). The OCP uses 54 items that form eight factors in exploratory factor analysis. We investigate the extent to which the OCP can be embedded into Schwartz’s Theory of Universals in Values (TUV) that is formulated in terms of a circumplex in a two-dimensional plane. To address this question, we develop a nonstandard multidimensional scaling (MDS) method that enforces a TUV-based axial regionality onto the solution space together with a permutation test that assesses the consistency of the side constraints with the MDS representation. We find that the OCP can indeed be embedded into the TUV. The practical implication is that P-O fit can be assessed more simply by the congruence of the person’s and the organization’s positions on two value dimensions: risk versus rules and results versus relations.
The current transformation of the labor sphere is often inconsistent in the direction and
content of the changes in employment relations and working activity. This has prompted
a revision of the theoretical foundations of the study of values and motives at work.
In this paper, work activity is regarded as a set of value-orientation bases, specific labor
practices and the true motivation of work behavior. In particular, we distinguish between
value dispositions and true work motivation, which depends on specific workplace and
Our survey of 1,423 Russian workers and managers revealed (1) the determinants
of the existing role standards in the work activity of Russian employees, (2) the role of
employees’ value dispositions in these processes, and (3) the importance of the socio-
economic conditions of specific jobs and occupations.
The findings confirm the dominance of materialistic values, although there are
significant differences in the actualization of values focused on personal development
within professional and industrial dimensions. We also find that the orientation towards self-
realization and professional development and the possibility of obtaining new knowledge
and skills are significantly associated with a positive normative model of individual work
behavior. Additionally, we reveal the considerable impact of the work content on the
demonstration of diligent and professional work. Finally, we find that true work motivation
is very much aligned with the norms and rules adopted in particular work environments.
A specific form of informal employment is presented by electronic freelancers, e.g. self-employed professionals working remotely via the Internet. Andrey Shevchuk and Denis Strebkov launched Russian Freelance Survey (RFS) that brought more than 10,000 usable responses in each of two waves in 2008 and 2010, making RFS one of the largest freelance surveys in the world. Using these unique data sets, the authors describe the main groups involved in the Russian-speaking e-lance market and demonstrate how they cope with the high level of informality of institutional arrangements and opportunistic behaviour of market actors.