"Тангутско-китайская своевременная жемчужина в руке" как источник по реконструкции чтений тангутских письменных знаков
By comparing Russian translations of the classical Taoist treatise “Dao De Jing” and commentaries to it written in the 20th – early 21st century, the author shows how specific interpretations of the text were conditioned by philosophical-worldview and methodological preferences of translators in accordance with different historical periods.
Keywords: Chinese philosophy, Taoism, “Dao De Jing”, Russian Sinology, interpretation of Chinese philosophical texts.
especially impaired on regular past-tense forms like played, whether the task requires production, comprehension or even the judgement that "play" and "played" sound different. Within a dual-mechanism account of inflectional morphology, these deficits reflect disruption to the rule-based process that adds (or strips) the suffix -ed to regular verb stems; but the fact that the patients are also impaired at detecting the difference between word pairs like "tray" and "trade" (the latter being a phonological but not a morphological twin to "played") suggests an important role for phonological characteristics of the regular past tense. The present study examined MEG brain responses in healthy participants evoked by spoken regular past-tense forms and phonological twin words (plus twin pseudowords and a non-speech control) presented in a passive oddball paradigm. Deviant forms (played, trade, kwade/kwayed) relative to their standards (play, tray, kway) elicited a pronounced neuromagnetic response at approximately 130 ms after the onset of the affix; this response was maximal at sensors over temporal areas of both hemispheres but stronger on the left, especially for played and kwayed. Relative to the same standards, a different set of deviants ending in /t/--plate, trait and kwate--produced stronger difference responses especially over the right hemisphere. Results are discussed with regard to dual- and single-mechanism theories of past tense processing and the need to consider neurobiological evidence in attempts to understand inflectional morphology.
We present a database of uvular consonant subsystems of indigenous languages of the Caucasus from all branches (Northwest Caucasian, East Caucasian and Kartvelian). Data for the database were collected from existing language descriptions and field work. All in all, 39 languages were analyzed. This database allows us to systematically compare the inventories of uvular consonants in the Caucasian languages and create a predictive model for the co-occurrence of particular uvular consonants.
Ce recueil inclut des articles d’orientalistes russes et français consacrés à différents aspects du développement des recherches sinologiques et japonologiques anciennes et contemporaines dans les deux pays, ainsi qu’à l’histoire de l’interaction des traditions sinologiques russes et françaises.
Speech production, both overt and covert, down-regulates the activation of auditory cortex. This is thought to be due to forward prediction of the sensory consequences of speech, contributing to a feedback control mechanism for speech production. Critically, however, these regulatory effects should be specific to speech content to enable accurate speech monitoring. To determine the extent to which such forward prediction is content-specific, we recorded the brain's neuromagnetic responses to heard multisyllabic pseudowords during covert rehearsal in working memory, contrasted with a control task. The cortical auditory processing of target syllables was significantly suppressed during rehearsal compared with control, but only when they matched the rehearsed items. This critical specificity to speech content enables accurate speech monitoring by forward prediction, as proposed by current models of speech production. The one-to-one phonological motor-to-auditory mappings also appear to serve the maintenance of information in phonological working memory. Further findings of right-hemispheric suppression in the case of whole-item matches and left-hemispheric enhancement for last-syllable mismatches suggest that speech production is monitored by 2 auditory-motor circuits operating on different timescales: Finer grain in the left versus coarser grain in the right hemisphere. Taken together, our findings provide hemisphere-specific evidence of the interface between inner and heard speech.
The author compares the interpretations, which the leading Russian sinologists worked out for the concept of Dao (Way) in taoist treatise Dao de jing, shows how these interpretations are determined with the points of view on the text designation, philosophical world outlooks and methodological approaches as well, clears up similarities and distinctions between the approaches and the main trends of their evolution.
Le recueil inclut des articles des sinologues russes et français consacrés aux aspects différents du développement des recherches sinologiques, japonologiques et tibétologiques anciennes et contemporaines dans les deux pays, et aussi à l’histoire de l’interaction des traditions sinologiques russes et françaises.