Об Угорском проекте: Теоретические концепции "клеточной глобализации", "очаговой экономики" и их приложения
The paper presents the history of the rise? as well as themes and theoretical foundations of the Ugory project, a complex interdisciplinary study of rurral communities and the natural capital in one of the regions of the Russian Near North. Along with empirical field studies, the Ugory projecct involves modeling social processes and identifyind the changing priorities of modern society. The article defines the main objectives of the project, as well as its major conceptual approaches.
The paper presents the history of the rise, as well as themes and theoretical foundations os Ugory project, a complex interdisciplinary study of rural communities and the natural capital in one of the regions of the Russian Near North. The article defines the main objectives of the project, as well as its major conceptual approaches.
Nowadays, the NearNorth of Russia undergoes a fateful epoch. The processes of destruction of the old world order in economic, social and cultural relations is not only continuing, but increasing its pace. The omnipresent destruction is manifested through the depopulation of villages and small towns, further decline in agricultural production, "consolidation" (actually closing) of educational institutions and health care centers, and the degradation of infrastructure. The compressed social space of the Middle North of Russia is shrinking in concentric circles around the regional centers, increasing the vastness of social vacuum and the white space, with the latter being gradually occupied by the mutating natural forms. In addition, yet another (opposite) trend can be identified. It is associated with the escalation of migration amongst the dwellers of the large cities, especially megalopolises, to rural areas.
Extensive development of Russian cities, especially Moscow and St. Petersburg, has revealed serious social problems that had previously not been fully taken into account. In particular, the rapid escalation and exacerbation of social problems determine the quality of life in cities. From one perspective, Moscow and St. Petersburg are represented as thriving metropolises possessing a whole set of such social attractors as rich and comfortable residential buildings, shopping malls with international brands, best restaurants, medical facilities and other requisites of the upper classes. However, parallel to these features, the quality of life in metropolitan areas is determined by such parameters as the deteriorating environmental conditions, increase in street (and other types of) crime, unsolvable traffic conditions which reduce inner-city mobility to a minimum, and the decline of anti-terrorist security.
In the Middle North of Russia, especially in the Kostroma region, one particular trend became evident: there has been a transition from the seasonal migration to dachas towards the ‘settled’ migration related not only to the summer recreation, but also to the industrial activity in the framework of modern technologies. Specifically, modern forms of labor in the field of information technology were initially (and still remain to be) exterritorial in nature. Those working with data tend to be indifferent to the location of their job – what is important to them is a point of connection to the network and a portal for entry into hyperspace.
Today globalization can be treated as the most important global process. It is a multi-faceted phenomenon and in every country it has its own image. One can get a truly objective picture of the rapidly changing and integrating world only through a synthesis of all those particular visions. In the present anthology one can find perceptions of globalization by a number of famous scholars from different countries of the world (Ervin Laszlo, Roland Robertson, Shmuel N. Eisenstadt, Randall Collins, Christopher Chase-Dunn, William Thompson and others), but one can also get to know rather peculiar visions of globalization by the Russian scientists.
The volume is entitled Globalistics and Globalization Studies. Globalistics may be regarded as a sort of systemic and more or less integrated ‘core’ within Global Studies. The anthology consists of four parts presenting a wide range of views on the meaning of the contemporary epoch, the past and the future of some important global processes. Part 1. Historical Dimension. Part 2. Globalistics, Global Studies and Models. Part 3. Trends, Risks, and Problems. Part 4. Perspectives and the New World Order.
This reader contains a collection of scientific works, speeches given at various conferences, Internet-based articles and other works thematically related tothe Ugory project carried out by the Society of Professional Sociologists (SoPSo). Such issues as the current state of rural communities in the Near North of Russia, the protection of the natural environment and cultural heritage, the natural reproduction of capital, the prospects of migration of the urban'creative class' to the countryside and its subsequent work in a remote access are discussed in this reader. The collection of scholarly works has aninterdisciplinary character and brings together social scientists, economists, social geographers, specialists in the field of public administration, as well asevolutionary biologists and ecologists. In the articles of this reader, the prospects of development of the Near North of Russia, especially the Kostroma region, are explicitly outlined. The reader is intended for scientists in related disciplines, undergraduate and graduate students, as well as the residents of the Middle North of Russiawho are interested in the future of their region.
The article reveals some of the intricate relationships between urbanization at different stages, human horizontal (spatial) and partial vertical mobility, and changing ruralurban communities. After reviewing the key ideas and schools of urban and urbanization studies, the authors examine the conceptual diversity and many-sided nature of deurbanization as a spatial, societal and cultural-mental transformation. The controversial discourse of the latter, which often implies opposite approaches and phenomena, such as social lifting or downshifting, is stressed, along with the greater role of individual decisions. Stronger social and spatial links between cities and rural areas in the globalizing world manifest themselves in the accelerated formation of the rural-urban continuum and through the growing recurrent spatial mobility of people. Russia’s incomplete urbanization and polarization of its socio-economic space have created two massive opposite flows, i.e. the centrifugal seasonal dacha deurbanization and the centripetal labor migration of Russian villagers and small town dwellers towards large cities. The two streams are interrelated, e.g. temporal urban work, and the lodging of Russian otkhodniks instead of resettling, leading to the prolongation of the life of peripheral localities where their families stay. This habitability, in turn, facilitates the dacha development of small settlements. The article considers the reasons for “guest work” in Russian cities and the variety of dachas, as well as their impact on both urban and rural lifestyles. Mass movements of vacationers and workers and their two-house lives, sometimes balanced in time, complicates the knowledge of how many people actually live and work in the countryside, in small and big cities. This is a serious obstacle to the adequate maintenance and development of Russia’s spaces, since local budgets are designed for permanent population alone – which in many places is partially true.
The author examines the processes of globalization (‘cellular globalization’) in the Near North of Russia in the context of the increasing role of natural capital and the impact of the environment on the life of urban and rural communities. In the article it is discussed the transfer of the curriculum of a large modern university of the countryside ecological milieu as a part of large-scale migration trend, i.e. the invariant of the process of the transition of megapolis to the non-urban environment. The new information and communication technologies of distance learning enhance this process.