Пространство языка и речи: лингвистические проблемы изучения и описания
The article attempts to classify lexical units denoting a human being in English, paying special attention to substandard and informal words. These units constitute the periphery of a broad category “human being”. The article offers a semantic classification of these lexemes and describes the cognitive processes accounting for their differentiation.
The article deals with the problems of ambiguous terms that until recently were considered unambiguous. With the development of cognitive problems of terminology in the study terms of polysemy new approaches have appeared. Cognitive science found that cognitive processes are carried out systematically. Therefore, in the transmission of meanings, leading to the polysemy of the words and polysemy of the term, consistency is present. Accumulation of language material will allow making a breakthrough in the understanding of the status of polysemantic terms in linguistic terminology and their role in the processes of accumulation, transmission and creation of a new professional knowledge.
The paper aims at reconstructing and describing representation of knowledge about a human being in the English-speaking culture, i.e. building a concept "human being". For the purposes of verification, we map the language view of the world described through semantic data onto the general world view based on a set of opinions and beliefs. Significant overlap of these knowledge structures from defferent scientific areas proves the existence of close connections between Cognitive Linguistics and Philosophy - a science that combines the knowlegde about human beings.
In the book main notions of descriptor theory of metaphors are discussed. Each example of metaphor usage is described as cortege of significative and denotative descriptors. Quantitative analysis of descriptors of both kinds allows to creature models of metaphorical structures of different discourses and their restricted fragments. In the book conceptual apparatus of descriptive theory is presented as well as case studies – examples of application of conceptual apparatus to concrete language areas, i.e. to political discourse and to restricted discourses (language of Gospels and to novels by A.Platonov).
In this article we present the results of research into discourse features characterising a lexico-semantic group of synonyms denoting a human being: human being, person, individual, personality and man. The main tool for analysis was language corpora, which made it possible not only to determine more precisely the functional styles the lexemes tend to be used in, but also to describe thematic characteristics of the texts in which the analysed lexical units show the highest frequency of use