Россия реформирующаяся. Ежегодник - 2002
An overview of the narratives on social development that have appeared in the social sciences at the turn of the millennium demonstrates that the vision of the future that emerges is blurred, and uncertainty, anxiety andinsecurity are perceptions shared by the political class and the public opinion. This said, the research agenda andgovernance priorities are torn apart to the detriment of security, equality and social cohesion. The gap which existsin our perception of the future calls for a new approach to development issues. The author proposes a conceptualframework for promoting social change at different levels of community life based on responsible development.This framework has several dimensions: a moral value oriented motivation for choosing development prioritiesand stimulating individual capabilities, recourse to non-material, intellectual and (where possible) renewableresources to promote this agenda, and an institutional basis for stimulating agency, engaging and empoweringindividuals and communities, and fostering civic political identity. Responsible development is not a universalmodel, nor a set of fixed goals, but a reference frame to pursue development priorities based on a strategic visionof the future and on innovative approaches to governance. These approaches may vary to accommodate theexigencies of different societies and communities, and there can be no one-size-fits-all option due to differencesin political culture, economic development and social frameworks, but they do share common basic principles.Social dialogue on the community level and the capabilities approach which has been adopted within theframework of the Nordic model are an example of effective governance practices which fit into this framework.Responsible development is a strategic vision of the principles that can direct communities and individuals topursue development issues and to hold responsibility for the choices they make, for the policies they promoteand for their long-term effects. As such, it requires a permanent tuning of social and political institutions,consideration of changing priorities, values and identities, and feedback between the research and the educationagendas, between the state, local governments, business and civil society. The social sciences are a crucial actorin this process; promoting this discourse in the public space and engaging the political class is a key priority ofa responsible intellectual community.
The article deals with the role of classics in the contemporary university education. Three disciplines are chosen for investigation: economics, sociology and psychology. To explicate the significance of classics in educational process a huge amount of introductory and specialized courses has been analyzed. The research is focused on two core problems: reading of classics and introducing classical works as exempla of raising problems and solving puzzles in social sciences.
The article is aimed to clarify the contradictory nature of the urban atmosphere phenomenon by defining its’ nuances and the genesis of its’ appearance in social sciences. Such approach will help to conceptualize the phenomenon and will lead to the creation of the future urban atmosphere model suitable for further operationalization.
The research is represented by the theoretical analysis of works interested in urban atmosphere phenomenon in the field of sociology, phenomenology, management, literature, cultural geography.
The work can be divided into two parts. The first part describes the differences between urban atmosphere nuances, namely ambiance and atmosphere, and define them. Then the second part provide us with the information about ambiance and atmosphere origin and the process of its’ development from ancient times to this day. In the end of the article the necessity of taking into account the urban atmosphere shades, when dealing with model creation, is argued.
According to the analysis the atmosphere is invisible but is characterized by magnetic properties making the urban space attractive for living bodies. The ambience is produced by the atmosphere, but have the more pronounced qualitative properties which characterize the urban space. The ambience influence on our lifetime by mediating the relations between living bodies.
The consideration of the urban atmosphere genesis in different research fields showed that the atmosphere has been studied mainly within natural science and literature as descriptive quantitative phenomenon aimed to define the space of existence for living bodies. Whereas the ambiance, full of qualitative and tangible characteristics, has been appeared later and has been borrowed by a number of research disciplines (such as sociology, psychology, economics, management) as possible to be analyzed and slightly applied in practice.
According to the analysis the author reaches the conclusion that the urban atmosphere is the highly constructed phenomenon consisting of either atmosphere, or ambience. The second one is the qualitative continuation of the first one and the characteristics of both shouldn’t be overlooked when conceptualizing the phenomenon. The analysis also showed that the functioning principles of physical atmosphere and ambiance can be applied in the model creation. It is connected with the absence of explanation of urban atmosphere and ambience functioning by social scientists. The application of these principles from physics will provide the full scheme of urban atmosphere components interrelation and interaction.
The questions considered in this review of the recently published book "There Is No Such Thing as a Social Science" by Phil Hutchinson, Rupert Read, and Wes Sharrock, pertain to the philosophy of the methodology of social sciences: what research problems can sociology study? is it possible for sociology to study social world as an empirical world, and what consequences will this sociologists' empirical attitude toward their subject have? The review explores how the authors of the book, with the help of Peter Winch's philosophy of the social sciences, criticize the project of sociology as an empirical enterprise. Then their own project of sociology is critically examined.
The purpose of the present study is to use analytical activities while reading a literary text to influence the personality of a foreign language learner. The teacher’s tasks are not only to facilitate perceiving, comprehending, memorizing or reproducing processes, but to foreground personal capacities of deep understanding, rethinking and reconsidering as well as to empower reflecting and self-reflecting. The research uses multi-paradigmatic and interdisciplinary approaches; general scientific methods (analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, comparison, hypothesis method); communicative methods. Research materials are reading assignments, practical activities and exercises being used to analyze English and French literary texts: lexical and semantic analysis, contextual analysis as well as project methodology. Only at the meta-cognitive level the student's reflexive and critical thinking characteristics can be effectively influenced or formed to learn more about their personal nature and essence, their own creative and analytical skills. The student should be able to reflect whether or not he/she comprehends the key ideas of the given literary text, its structure, the motivation of the characters. Such activities are transformed into self-assessment activities performing self-educational, self-improving and self-discipling functions. In that sense, the implementation of meta-cognitive strategies gains more and more importance.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.