Сборник практических заданий по экологии
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
Environmental protest has become the main form of political protest in Russia in 2018-2019. The decision to open a landfill for waste disposal at Shies station in the Arkhangelsk region caused dissatisfaction of residents with the policies of regional elites and strengthened the position of environmental protest in the whole country. In the article we identify the politicization of environmental discourse using the case of the landfill at Shies. We show how the political decision of the authorities, which was excluded from the public discussion and competing discourses, has led to the dominant discourse construction of an environmental problem as a political one among citizens. Based on 19 semi-structured interviews with residents of the Arkhangelsk region we conclude that the politicization of environmental discourse and high political mobilization occurred due to three main mechanisms that worked simultaneously. Citizens assess the decision as illegitimate, unfair and attributed responsibility to certain political leaders.
In the world there is a rapid growth of interest in environmental issues. It brings to Russia both opportunities and risks. First connected with the country's exceptional wealth of natural capital, the value of which in time it only increases. The second - with a high level of contamination on a significant part of the country and passive environmental policies. Russia's participation in international environmental cooperation has always reflected the low priority of environmental issues on the domestic agenda and was subordinated primarily to the solution of foreign policy tasks. However, at present, among the political and business elites of Russia, the awareness of the importance of environmental issues is increasing, and as a result, in the near future Russia may become more involved in international environmental initiatives.
The philosophical meaning of some ideas of the modern ecology is revealed in the article, and the possibility of applying an extended ecological approach in scientific research, management, and educational activities is substantiated. The heuristic character of the concept of ecosophy, introduced into scientific circulation by the French philosopher Felix Guattari, is shown. It is argued that ecology today is not limited to the idea of coexistence and co-evolution of man and nature but might be understood as an ecology of mind, of knowledge, of action, of communication, of management, and of education. Such a broad understanding of ecology develops in his scientific works Stanislav N. Glazachev, whose anniversary is celebrated in 2019.
One of the key advances in genome assembly that has led to a significant improvement in contig lengths has been improved algorithms for utilization of paired reads (mate-pairs). While in most assemblers, mate-pair information is used in a post-processing step, the recently proposed Paired de Bruijn Graph (PDBG) approach incorporates the mate-pair information directly in the assembly graph structure. However, the PDBG approach faces difficulties when the variation in the insert sizes is high. To address this problem, we first transform mate-pairs into edge-pair histograms that allow one to better estimate the distance between edges in the assembly graph that represent regions linked by multiple mate-pairs. Further, we combine the ideas of mate-pair transformation and PDBGs to construct new data structures for genome assembly: pathsets and pathset graphs.