Медушевская О.М. Теория исторического познания : избр. произведения
The cognitive history paradigm proposed by the prominent Russian scientist is a new research strategy in modern humanities. The crucial element of this concept is an idea of the “intellectual product” as the material evidence and proof of human purpose-oriented activity in history and a universal instrument of cultural exchange across historical periods and political borders. By the using of this concept social scientists obtain the possibility to establish a new methodology of verified historical studies.
Modernization of Russia should be based on well-founded strategies, which demand the definition of Russia's place in the world. Meanwhile, solution to this problem requires developing of the methodology of history. This article looks at the ontological aspect of historical methodology. Analysis of five conceptions of being (ontological doctrines) suggests that the most constructive methodology of history in frame of its lower level is an evolutionary version of neutral monism.
The article focuses on the most famous Russian pre-modern autobiography The Life by protopope Avvakum (1621/22–1682) to discuss his wife Natas’ja Markovna as one of its essential characters. Being the leader of the movement against religious reform in the seventeenth century Russia, Avvakum composed his life story in accordance with hagiographical canon of the martyr to send a propaganda message to his followers. The figure of Natas’ja Markovna in his text also works for this aim. In accordance with women’s hagiographic canon she is portrayed as wife and mother completely subjected to her husband’s will and doomed to share all hardships of his life. Though Avvakum’s autobiography was widely read, this religious/social context was often understood as insignificant for understanding its meanings. The same is true for the figure of the protopopica, which was used by Russian scholars and writers of the twentieth century to establish a canon of the model wife.
The features of two information systems devoted to the publications of archival documents on the history of Russian serving elite of XVII–XVIII centuries are studied for foresighting the typical problems in similar projects. The main tasks of net- 95 work publications of historical sources are the most correct transfer of the structure and text of the document, the development of electronic finding aids, and setting up computer systems navigation. The preparation of electronic edition of archival documents should have several basic phases, such as reasonable choice of the technology for electronic publication and published documents, the search for the best way of transliteration of the text, the researcher’s work with the originals of historical documents for correction of electronic text, and a description of documents. Application and experience of using the projects are listed and evaluated.
The paper identifies two approaches in the formation of subject fields of historiography’s source studies, which differ according to their religion and paradigmatic grounds and, respectively, on the methodological and ethical consequences. First – inside the disciplinary framework of historiography, in which historiography’s source studies is formed quite traditional way, by analogy with the so-called source studies (actually thematic review of sources) other specialisations and research areas – source studies of military history, source studies agrarian history etc.
The starting point of the second approach serves as a source studies. This approach, developed by Scientific and pedagogical school of source studies website Istochnikovedenie.ru, realizing the idea of exacting scientific nature of historical knowledge and considering the historical source (including historiographic sources) as its empirical basis, aspires to rationality of the neoclassical type. Understanding the historical source as a result of a creative activity of a person / product of the culture leads to the following definition of the analyzed concept: historiographic sources is a group of types of historical sources, realizing the functions of presentation and positioning of historical knowledge, both scientific and socially oriented. In this case, the historiography’s source studies as a branch of source studies, has as its object of a specific group of historical sources – historiographic sources while maintaining universal source studies themes of the approach for studying them.
Examines the concept of historiographic source and shows the coherence of approaches to the definition of this concept approaches to the definition of a historical source, links these approaches with classical, non-classical and neoclassical models of science. Shown the value of the species classification of historiographic sources, which allows to evaluate them not only in terms of goal-setting of the author, but in the context of a specific historiographical culture. A special analysis s given for the notion of «monography» as a kind of historiographic sources, coherent classical model of science.
The volume incklude the results of studying different sources of written, artistic and material heritage of 6-20th cc.
Analyzed the methods of the formation of the source basis in historical research.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.