Медушевская О.М. Теория исторического познания : избр. произведения
The cognitive history paradigm proposed by the prominent Russian scientist is a new research strategy in modern humanities. The crucial element of this concept is an idea of the “intellectual product” as the material evidence and proof of human purpose-oriented activity in history and a universal instrument of cultural exchange across historical periods and political borders. By the using of this concept social scientists obtain the possibility to establish a new methodology of verified historical studies.
Modernization of Russia should be based on well-founded strategies, which demand the definition of Russia's place in the world. Meanwhile, solution to this problem requires developing of the methodology of history. This article looks at the ontological aspect of historical methodology. Analysis of five conceptions of being (ontological doctrines) suggests that the most constructive methodology of history in frame of its lower level is an evolutionary version of neutral monism.
The article offers some observations concerning the current state of the “new history of medicine”, a field of research focused on the role of medicine, its ideas, ideologies and practices in culture and society. The author concentrates on methodological trends of this field, its research agenda, and the challenges it faces at the moment. In spite of the pessimistic opinions of some commentators on the perspectives of its further development, the author concludes that the new medical history in its present state does not show any signs of crisis. Quite the contrary, it is developing fast and steady, reacting to challenges and incorporating new approaches.
The article focuses on the most famous Russian pre-modern autobiography The Life by protopope Avvakum (1621/22–1682) to discuss his wife Natas’ja Markovna as one of its essential characters. Being the leader of the movement against religious reform in the seventeenth century Russia, Avvakum composed his life story in accordance with hagiographical canon of the martyr to send a propaganda message to his followers. The figure of Natas’ja Markovna in his text also works for this aim. In accordance with women’s hagiographic canon she is portrayed as wife and mother completely subjected to her husband’s will and doomed to share all hardships of his life. Though Avvakum’s autobiography was widely read, this religious/social context was often understood as insignificant for understanding its meanings. The same is true for the figure of the protopopica, which was used by Russian scholars and writers of the twentieth century to establish a canon of the model wife.
The paper identifies two approaches in the formation of subject fields of historiography’s source studies, which differ according to their religion and paradigmatic grounds and, respectively, on the methodological and ethical consequences. First – inside the disciplinary framework of historiography, in which historiography’s source studies is formed quite traditional way, by analogy with the so-called source studies (actually thematic review of sources) other specialisations and research areas – source studies of military history, source studies agrarian history etc.
The starting point of the second approach serves as a source studies. This approach, developed by Scientific and pedagogical school of source studies website Istochnikovedenie.ru, realizing the idea of exacting scientific nature of historical knowledge and considering the historical source (including historiographic sources) as its empirical basis, aspires to rationality of the neoclassical type. Understanding the historical source as a result of a creative activity of a person / product of the culture leads to the following definition of the analyzed concept: historiographic sources is a group of types of historical sources, realizing the functions of presentation and positioning of historical knowledge, both scientific and socially oriented. In this case, the historiography’s source studies as a branch of source studies, has as its object of a specific group of historical sources – historiographic sources while maintaining universal source studies themes of the approach for studying them.
Examines the concept of historiographic source and shows the coherence of approaches to the definition of this concept approaches to the definition of a historical source, links these approaches with classical, non-classical and neoclassical models of science. Shown the value of the species classification of historiographic sources, which allows to evaluate them not only in terms of goal-setting of the author, but in the context of a specific historiographical culture. A special analysis s given for the notion of «monography» as a kind of historiographic sources, coherent classical model of science.
The volume incklude the results of studying different sources of written, artistic and material heritage of 6-20th cc.
Analyzed the methods of the formation of the source basis in historical research.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.