Основы семантики синтаксиса. Конструкции со свернутыми предикатными актантами: Учебное пособие по теоретической грамматике английского языка
Aims and Scope
Earlier empirical studies on valency have looked at the phenomenon either in individual languages or a small range of languages, or have concerned themselves with only small subparts of valency (e.g. transitivity, ditransitive constructions), leaving a lacuna that the present volume aims to fill by considering a wide range of valency phenomena across 30 languages from different parts of the world. The individual-language studies, each written by a specialist or group of specialists on that language and covering both valency patterns and valency alternations, are based on a questionnaire (reproduced in the volume) and an on-line freely accessible database, thus guaranteeing comparability of cross-linguistic results. In addition, introductory chapters provide the background to the project and discuss its main characteristics and selected results, while a series of featured articles by leading scholars who helped shape the field provide an outside perspective on the volume’s approach. The volume is essential reading for anyone interested in valency and argument structure, irrespective of theoretical persuasion, and will serve as a model for future descriptive studies of valency in individual languages.
The paper addresses the phenomenon of double semantic roles (Endpoint — Place, Goal — Cause) which act as two possible realizations of the same semantic valency and which possess distinct morphosyntactic expressions — accusative and prepositional case, respectively. The paper attempts to determine semantic classes of verbs, which are characterized by this type of semantic structure, as well as identify the shifts in interpretation, which occur in each of the two possible morphosyntatic realizations. The study demonstrates that double semantic roles and the ensuing morphosyntactic variation are typical primarily for caused motion verbs of semantically liminal classes, which combine the semantics of caused motion with other components, such as placement, deformation, creation of an image. There are certain semantic peculiarities typical of each of the realizations. For example, the role of Place calls for nouns with the meaning of spaces or large surfaces, but not containers; the role of Endpoint calls for containers or small surfaces. Intentional actions are better combined with the expression of Endpoint; unintentional predicates favor the expression of Place. On the whole, double roles are considerably more frequent in direct senses than in metaphorical ones, possibly because greater semantic fuzziness typical for the former is replaced by higher semantic specificity in the latter, which limits the syntactic expression as well.
It is argued that in Adyghe (Northwest Caucasian) some complement constructions actually include a relative clause where the target of the relativization is a factive argument introduced with dedicated applicative morphology.
The paper considers semantics–syntax interface in the domain of Russian psych-verbs denoting emotional states. It attempts to demonstrate that syntactic properties of psych-verbs are semantically motivated. Psych-verbs are usually assigned two thematic roles – Experiencer and Stimulus. While Experiencer in Russian psych-verbs denoting state is usually coded as nominative or dative, Stimulus lacks a standard syntactic expression. The paper puts forward a hypothesis that variation in syntactic expression is semantically motivated. It is explained by the absence of a holistic role in place of Stimulus. The types of emotional stimuli vary greatly in different emotion clusters (anger, joy, sadness, pride, fear etc.) and these ontological differences receive semantic and syntactic reflection. In different emotion clusters and depending on syntactic expression, the role of Stimulus can be semantically flavored by other thematic roles, such as Patient (for certain verbs of anger), Adressee (for certain verbs of joy), Place or Theme (for certain verbs of sadness), Instrument or Part (for verbs of pride) and others. The choice of syntactic expression is often triggered by this additional thematic role. The types of additional roles are determined by the whole event structure, namely, the type of stimulus, wishes of the experience, the type of feeling, behavioral and speech manifestations of emotion. If a verb allows different kinds of syntactic expression of stimulus, each government pattern is associated with its own additional thematic role.
The volume addresses the issue of verbs valencies as they are reflected in grammatical descriptions as well as dictionaries. It contains a variety of contributions on Slavic languages which tackle both theoretical and practical problems of valencies, actants, argument and event structure of verbs.
Our data come from the Eastern Armenian National Corpus (www.eanc.net), an open electronic resource including over 100 million word tokens and covering Eastern Armenian from the moment of its standardization (early 19th century) to the present. Naturalistic examples, however, are often lengthy and contain a lot of irrelevant data. For the sake of simplicity many examples cited below are constructed, based on one of the authors’ native knowledge. For most of these constructed examples, parallel naturalistic examples may be found in the online valency database (valpal.info) to which this volume is a sister project. When naturalistic, examples are marked as EANC, additionally indicating whether they come from translated fiction, newspaper or original fiction (the name of the author is given in the latter case). Examples are given both in the Armenian script and in the transliteration which is close to the traditional Latin transliteration of Armenian (Hübschmann-Meillet) but is slightly modified to better match IPA. The paper is structured as follows. Section 2 provides a general overview of Eastern Armenian morphosyntax. Section 3 is a discussion of transitivity issues and the two transitivity changing derivations, the mediopassive and the causative, the only marked valency alternations existing in Eastern Armenian. The question of whether Eastern Armenian is primarily a transitivizing or detransitivizing language in terms of Nichols et al. (2004) is briefly addressed. Section 4 covers unmarked alternations, including reciprocal, object omission, contentive-locative and the most unusual of all, the proprietive (ablative-genitive) alternation, showing alternative construals of the same inanimate participant as the Source or (retrospective) Possessor. Section 5 introduces the notion of extended valencies: semantic roles that represent identical participants and are marked in the same way with all verbs but that that are optional with some verbs while obligatory with other verbs. Using this notion helps to establish connections between verb classes that are different only in the degree to which the participant is integrated into the respective situation (cf. Beneficiary with ‘build (for)’ vs. ‘send (to)’ vs. ‘give to’). Finally, Section 6, building on the data on case frames (e.g. dative verbs or transitive verbs) and alternations available for specific verbs (first of all availability of marked alternations), groups them into classes of common morphosyntactic behavior to produce a valency-based classification of Eastern Armenian verbs. Section 7 is a brief summary of the paper.
In my paper, two approaches to verb classification in Adyghe, a language of the West Caucasian family, are discussed. The first approach is a purely morphological classification based on the choice of person cross-referencing prefixes. The second one is a derivational classification which builds on the morphological mechanisms of reciprocalization and reflexivization. The main research question which lies behind the classification study is whether verbs derived by means of the reciprocal or reflexive marker behave in the course of further valency-changing operations differently from nonderived verbs.
I show that verb classification in Adyghe has some typologically peculiar properties, the main one being that the derivational classification distinguishes more specific classes than the purely morphological one. In other words, the fact that a verb is derived is crucial for its behavior. The language-specific properties of Adyghe are also typologically relevant. They show that derived verbs and derivational mechanisms are of particular relevance in verb classification and should be given more attention in linguistic work on verb classification than is currently done.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.