Инновационная экономика: реалии и перспективы: научная конференция, Санкт-Петербург, 27 сентября 2011 года
Integrated approach to the company management is one of the ways to improve its competitiveness. Strategic and operating decisions; computational and intuitive solutions; financial and non-financial aspects of the activity – special models allow to combine all sides to achieve best result for the company.
In Soviet period absence of market prices led to extremely inefficient land use and spatial development of cities. Centralized planning system was not flexible and responsive to changing demand, preoccupied with minimization of construction costs and characterized by very low density of land use. In 20 years after the beginning of market economic reforms and mass privatization of real property the situation in land use and spatial development of Russian cities didn’t change much. Main reasons of this are: unclear, non-specified and often not registered property rights; quasi-monopoly of the state on urban lands; absence of clear distinction between federal, regional and municipal lands; high transaction costs and administrative barriers for developers; still very much administrative approach to planning and land use regulation, absence of real dialog with community development groups and NGOs. In this legal and institutional environment regional and/or local authorities often act in interests of big and influential investors and developers, scarifying interests of community as well as of small private owners and tenants. As a result we can see a further worsening of the urban environment, decreasing of green areas, disappearance of historical character of whole parts of city centers, sprawl developments in suburbia etc.
To measure transaction costs and administrative risks in urban development and construction, a survey of developers, builders and real estate agents was undertaken in St Petersburg and Leningrad region, the results of which are presented in the paper.
The question was raised about methods of empirical verification for various technologies of strategic planning on the local level. The preliminary results of the case studies were examined that described the long-term consequences of strategic planning on the municipal level. The strong connection between the influence of the strategic plan on socio-economic development and the stability of the authority was shown.
The paper presents a comparative analysis of unconstraining methods for normal (Gaussian) distribution. Such a statistical problem is being addressed to by the airlines on daily basis all over the world in order to produce an adequate unconstrained passenger demand forecast. It is found that unconstraining methods based on statistical approaches have a much better accuracy then heuristics commonly used in practice. This advantage of statistical methods remains valid especially for high censored data.