Онтологии для Абеляра и Елоизы
This monograph is devoted to the ontology of standard and deviant quantification. It compares the heuristic capabilities and ontological obligations of two paradigms of quantifier interpretation – second-order predicates or functions of choice, traced from their origins (G. Frege and C. S. Peirce) to their current state (abstract logic and IF logic). Its novelty lies in the fact that it provides a philosophical review of the recent years' findings concerning the expressive and deductive power of nonstandard quantification logics. The monograph provides an overview of tools for a logical analysis of language, and for the logical and ontological explication of classical philosophical difficulties caused by a predicative interpretation of existence.
A circle of intellectuals – associates of German poet Stefan George (1868-1933) – played a significant role in the evolution of ideas at the turn and in the first third of the 20th century. The impact of George's circle extends far beyond the bounds of poetry and literature to history, pedagogy, philosophy, and economics. George's specific interpretation of politics influenced an entire generation of Germans on the eve of the Nazi catastrophe. The Circle was largely built on Plato's Academy, and Stefan George was considered 'the new Plato'. Members of George's circle authored a number of books, articles, and translations that were designed to compete with the academic view on Plato. This monograph, based on published and archival materials, examines the ways George's circle influenced conventional academic studies of Plato's philosophy.
The article is devoted of philosophical views by Leo Tolstoy, we described transitions of ideas from Enlightenment to the philosophy of Life.
Drawing upon exegetical and scientific writings of Isaac Newton, his followers (W. Whiston) and opponents (Ch. Burnet), present study deals with the rise of objectivism – fundamental epistemic principle underlying the modern scientific worldview. The study is focused upon the synthesis of three epistemological principles, which shaped the science of Enlightenment: hermeneutic transparency of text in exegesis, mathematical certainty in natural science, and realistic mimesis in literary criticism. The author also examines the epistemological project, opposed to objectivistic paradigm, that puts together allegory in biblical scholarship, hypothetical method in physic and the primacy of literariness over referentiality in literary theory. Present article seeks to contribute to the genealogy of objective reality – ontological a priori of the modern scientific thought, emerged from the confusion of methodologies and discourses, characteristic to early Modern Times.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.