Info ops: from World War I to the Twitter era
THIS BOOK WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN POSSIBLE WITHOUT GENerous and priceless assistance from many people and institutions to whom we would like to express our gratitude. First and foremost, we thank the Gerda Henkel Foundation for supporting the workshop “A Century of Information Operations: From Crewe House to Twitter” that launched this project. Thanks are also due to the King’s Centre for Strategic Communications (KCSC) at King’s College London for hosting the workshop, and the Centre of Military and Political Studies at Moscow State Institute of International Relations for assisting in its organization. We are especially grateful to Neville Bolt, director of KCSC, whose help and support encouraged us to carry on with this project, and to Marie-Claire Antoine of Lynne Rienner Publishers for her continuous support and for believing in us and this book from the beginning. We would also like to express our gratitude to David SimanTov at the Institute for National Security Studies, Tel Aviv University, whose help in the final stages of the project was especially beneficial. Finally, we acknowledge the authors of the chapters for their encouragement, patience, and commitment.Since antiquity, information has been used in conflict—to deceive, to demoralize, to sow fear among enemy troops. Not until the twentieth century, though, did information operations become so central to war. In Info Ops, the authors assess the evolving role and increasing relevance of information operations from the leaflet bombardments of World War I to the present digital age.