Мир комиксов-2020: диафильм, супергерои, японская субкультура
Tezuka Osamu is one of the first manga author, who started to transform works of classical literature into the language of Japanese comics. Among his works we can distinguish comic adaptations of Goethe’s “Faust” and “Crime and Punishment” by Dostoevsky. Those works, according to the assurances of Tezuka Osamu, were created by him in order to introduce the younger generation to the masterpieces of world literature. But, in fact, they are rather a courageous experiment by the author, based on Tezuka Osamu’s personal experience with the works of American and Soviet animation and cinema (“Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs”, “The Humpbacked Horse”, etc.).
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, a foreign culture poured into Russia in a powerful stream. The books of previously banned writers are beginning to be published, and comic books are also being actively promoted, including Japanese manga, about which former Soviet citizens heard for the first time. The spread of manga (and anime) abroad begins only in the mid-1980s, but already in the 1990s its first samples have reached Russia. Therefore in 1995 the first volume of Nakazawa Keiji's "Barefoot Gen", dated to the 50th anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, was published on Russian. But a year earlier another manga was released, today it can be considered the very first manga translated into Russian. It is symbolic that this was manga "Black Jack" by Tezuka Osamu. Thanks to Tezuka Osamu manga was developed into a huge industry during the postwar period and later was able to compete with American comic books and French comics band desine. Tezuka was a doctor by education and in this manga he combined his medical knowledge with the profession of mangaka. The main character Black Jack became a sort of Tezuka Osamu alter-ego and gained a great love of the readers. However, the existence of such a character, unlike, for example, American Mickey Mouse, was hardly known in Russia, so the first issues of Japanese comics were not in great demand. Despite this, in the narrow circle of domestic fans of Japanese animation and manga (otaku) the need for such kind of cultural products was brewing. In the late 1990s, with the development of computer technologies, amateur translations of manga on the Web, including the Russian-speaking segment of the Internet, are widely spread. There are exist informal publishers who publish an unlicensed manga (piratka) on paper. Subsequently, some of them are retrained into official companies, which will mark the appearance of the first Russian publishing houses translating manga in the early 2000s. In this regard, it is important to trace the contents of these works and the specifics of their publication, as well as the experience of publishers, who decided to translate Asian comics into Russian.
The article raises the issue of plagiarism in comics. In recent decades comic books broke free of its culturally imposed limitations (when they were discarded as cheap entertainment dictated by commercial considerations) and gradually became the subject of interest for literary critics. The main reasons of this shift of attitude were the so-called iconic turn and the recognition of the fact that the literature itself as well as its production and perception conditions have changed due to increasing influence of alternative, hybrid media. Not the last role in this process played comic adaptations of well-known works of literature. Asian comic artists whose strips continue conquering comic markets in nowadays Europe and America fully realized the promising potential of such recoding and started including not only their own literary tradition, but also the western one into the field of their work. They use world literature as a wide reservoir of motifs, characters, images, topics and writing styles and technics which prove to be productive for the own creative vocabulary. However, sometimes quite naïve, unreflective or too literal transference of original text into comics result in common opinion that the lack of creative ability makes comic artists look for and then steal ideas elsewhere or that such works have no artistic value because they do not differ from illustrated books and thus do not add much to the original text. Such critics forget, though, (putting aside the fact that comics as medium have their own internal gradation) that in Asian cultural tradition borrowing and copying are not considered as something improper, on the contrary the ability to do the same thing as one’s predecessors but in a slightly different way was seen as a sign of artistic perfection. And yet, the question whether comic artists whose books are based on literary sources may claim for originality or can be accused of plagiarism stays open. In this article we tried to introduce our vision of this problem while selecting as material for analysis the work of Korean comic artists Han SeungHee und Jeon JinSeok which is called One Thousand and One Nights.
Kamishibai (from ‘kami’ meaning paper and ‘shibai’ meaning drama - literally paper drama) is an unusual form of manga which was popular in Japan in the 1930s-1950s. This visual experience consisted of a series of illustrations being shown accompanied by an oral commentary. An examination of Kamishibai reveals some interesting facts and explains why Japanese comics flourished after the Second World War.
This book is the second publication on manga research in the field of Russian Japanese Studies. It contains articles by Russian and Japanese scholars who discuss various aspects of manga. The book consists of three parts.
The first part focuses on shōnen manga genre and addresses such themes as manga-links with art, postmodernism influence, manga adaptation of literature, virtual worlds reflection in manga, comics as media of historical memory and manga expression theory.
The second part illuminates genre of Japanese female comics and researches of leading experts. It includes articles about the history of shōjo manga style and the origins of shōnen-ai genre, an analysis of character “girl dressed as boy”, an investigation of gender studies in manga and also such themes as family problems reflection in Takaya Natsuki’s works and female mode of address in seinen manga.
The third part examines formal elements of manga such as flashbacks.
 The first publication “Manga in Japan and Russia: Otaku Subculture, History and Anatomy of Japanese Comics” was released at Moscow in 2015.
Discusses the works of Japanese manga authors of the 1970s – Takemiya Keiko and Hagio Moto, who created a new genre shounen-ai (boy’s love). This genre of manga is intended for female audiences and developed in Japan, but was experienced a considerable influence of European art, especially French literature and cinema.
In this paper we describe the design and development of a multi-touch surface and software that challenges current approaches to the production and consumption of comics. Authorship of the comics involves drawing the ‘top level’ of the story directly onto paper and projecting lower-level narrative elements, such as objects, characters, dialogue, descriptions and/or events onto the paper via a multi-touch interface. In terms of the impact this has upon the experience of reading and writing, the implementation of paper is intended to facilitate the creation of high-level overviews of stories, while the touch surface allows users to generate branches through the addition of artifacts in accordance with certain theories about interactive narratives. This provides the opportunity to participate in the reading and authoring of both traditional, paper-based texts and interactive, digital scenarios. Prototype comics are used to demonstrate this approach to reading and writing top-level and low-level narratives.
The prospects of various interdisciplinary researches, the problem of the unity of scientific knowledge, the possibility of translating methods from one discipline to another, the impact of digitalization on various fields of scientific knowledge, the acceptability of general approaches to science management, in particular, to the evaluation of scientific productivity are debated in the discussion on the limits of methodological convergence of natural-scientific and social-humanitarian knowledge. The debaters Н.N. Knyazeva, G.L. Tulchinsky, V.G. Kuznetsov and N.M. Smirnova comment on each other’s positions, point out the strengths and weaknesses in proponents’ justification, agree on a number of issues, and indicate the main theses and arguments for each position, groping for prospects for further development of the discussed issues.
The paper analyzes the functioning of the short past passive participles in the predicative position in West Russian Chronicles. The main focus is on the participles which are used without an auxiliary in the past tense and denote the past action. For an adequate analysis of these forms, it is necessary to use the material of both the Old Russian language and the Ukrainian, Belorussian and Polish languages. The analyzed forms can be used in the same two functions as in Old Russian: for denoting a resultative or an aoristic action. At the same time, -no-/-to- forms, which are almost grammaticalized and function as impersonal finite forms as in the Ukrainian and Polish languages, were found in the West Russian Chronicles. The emergence of these forms is caused, apparently, by the original ability of the past passive participles to be used without auxiliary in aoristic contexts. The discovery of these functions of the passive participles demonstrates the parallelism in the history of their development with two other participles: -ъš-/-vъš- and l-forms.
Within a brief historical period, BRICS as an inter-State association has become an influential player in the world economy and politics. BRICS is a primarily political entity, and in that regard, the BRICS grouping correlates with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). However, not all the expectations placed on the SCO by the founding countries at the time of its creation in 2001 have been met so far. The question is to what extent expectations may be fulfilled in case of BRICS.
The article identifies the effect of personalization of politics: its definition is given, the determinants and possible consequences are considered. That effect is illustrated by some features in the Asian and European style of modern political leadership.