XVI Международный междисциплинарный Конгресс "Нейронаука для медицины и психологии". Судак, Крым. Россия.
The XVI international interdisciplinary Congress "Neuroscience for medicine and psychology" continues the cycle of scientific events (High Tatras, Slovakia, 2002 and 2003; Karadag, Crimea, Ukraine, 2002 and 2003; Hurghada, Egypt, 2004, Sudak, Crimea, Ukraine, 2004-2013, Sudak, Crimea, Russia, 2014-2019), which are dedicated to the multi-faceted study of the nervous system and the use of this knowledge in medical and psychological practice. The main goal of the forum is to unite the efforts of highly qualified and young specialists of the scientific community who study the nervous system from different points of view to preserve the biological and mental health of people in the modern world. As part of the Congress, the School "Achievements of interdisciplinary neuroscience in the XXI century" is held with lectures and reports by leading scientists. The following issues will be discussed at the sessions of the Congress sections: stress and neurosis, memory, learning, thinking and consciousness, neuronal mechanisms of cognitive processes, Neurotechnology and cognitive
Understanding neurological mechanisms of motor recovery after stroke is important for selecting appropriate therapeutic and rehabilitation strategies. One of the most widely-used but yet rather controversial MRI predictors is a co-called lesion load on the cortico-spinal tract (CST). This metric corresponds to the overlap between the volumes of the lesion and the cortico-spinal tract which is responsible for conducting neuronal signals that lead to motion generation. In this study we evaluated the potential of the lesion load to explain the motor outcome in a cohort of patients with chronic ischemic stroke. Lesions were automatically identified on structural T1-weighted images using LINDA package. Once lesions are identified, lesion loads on CST were calculated automatically using PALS software package (Ito et al., 2018). Finally, the obtained results were used to classify patients according to their motor outcome using decision tree classifier J48 implemented in WEKA software. However, the classification accuracy was much lower compared to the classification results based on another widely accepted MRI parameter: asymmetry of the fractional anisotropy in the internal capsule of the CST.
The degree of mental attention in childhood and adolescence determines in the future the effectiveness of working memory (ability to store and manipulate information). Attention has been previously found to be related to the prefrontal and parietal areas of the human cortex. But the relationship between attention and white matter properties are still largely unknown. The goal of this study was to identify the relationships between attention and fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion MRI in bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus (in three subdivisions SLF 1- 3), arcuate fasciculus (AF), and corpus callosum (CC) in children and adolescents. Subjects: 14 children (9-11 years) and 13 teenagers (12-15 years). During the experiments participants had to establish a match between the colors on the screen and the colors on the previous slide. The task had six difficulty levels and both performance accuracy (m-score) and reaction time (RT) were measured. There was a positive correlation for m-score and a negative correlation for RT with FA in СС (levels 1-3) in the children's group (p<0.05). On the contrary, when FA increases in the right SLF 3 (level 6), there is a decrease in m-score, and when FA increases in the left SLF 3 and AF, there is an increase in RT at 2,3,4 and 6 levels. In contrast, a decrease in RT with an increase FA of bilateral SLF 3 (level 6) and left AF (level 4) was observed for adolescents, which reflects the redistribution of the roles between fiber tracts with age. FA values of the left (level 2) and right (level 1) SLF 2 negatively correlated with mscore (p <0.05) in the same group. For females (n=13) (regardless the age), there was only a negative correlation for m-score (2,3,5 levels) and the only positive correlation for RT (level 2) with FA of the right SLF 1, left and right SLF 2, in the left SLF 3 and СС (p<0.05). For males (n=13), on the contrary, there were positive correlations between m-score and FA of the СС (1,3,4 levels) and the left SLF 1 (5 level), and inverse correlations between RT and FA for the same fibers of the white matter (1 level) (p<0,05). Interestingly, an increase in FA with age was found in males in all the components of the white matter (p<0.01), except for the СС, and in females, on thecontrary – only in the СС. Further research is needed, taking into account gender, to fully understand the influence of white matter on the development of mental attention.