Устойчивое развитие: общество и экономика: материалы VI Международной научно-практической конференции, 28 февраля — 01 марта 2019 г.
Materials was published based on the results of the VI International Scientific and Practical Conference “Sustainable Development: Society and Economics”, held as part of the International Labor Forum - 2019, organized by the Government of St. Petersburg and St. Petersburg State University on February 28 - March 01, 2019. The collection of materials is intended for students, bachelors, undergraduates, graduate students and teachers of economic specialties of universities, scientific and practical workers.
In this paper the author analyzes the impact of immigration cohorts on the earnings differential between long-term immigrants and natives in Russia. The nationally representative data came from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey for 2010–2015. The main methods of empirical analysis in the study are ordinary least squares regression and the random effects model. The obtained results show that long-term immigrants who moved to Russia in the 2000s earn less on average than natives and those who moved to the country in the 1990s. The findings can be explained by two main reasons. On the one hand, cohorts differ in length of the residence period in the country. It is expected that immigrants who moved to Russia in the 1990s have been living in the country for a longer time and could have gained more competence and skills required for the Russian labor market. This, in turn, may positively affect their earnings. On the other hand, the two groups are quite heterogeneous in terms of human capital. Immigrants from the later cohort are less educated, and the share of ethnic Russian respondents among them is also lower compared to those who moved to the country in the 1990s. Distinctions in human capital lead to differences in earnings between the two groups of immigrants.
Abstract: The paper analyses the role of vocational education in formation of professional trajectories of Russian employed population during the period 2005-2015. Based on longitudinal data we explore the differences between career paths of workers that had the experience of vocational training and workers without such experience. We contribute the debate regarding vocational training and its role in innovation and economic development utilizing methodology of sequence analysis and Markov chains with long memory (mixture transition distribution models (MTD)). MTD models suggest the analysis of categorical data sequences instead of quantitative data that is standard for this kind of research. Such methodological approach allows not only estimating casual effects of participation in vocational education programs on the wage level, but exploring how vocational training influences the whole career path. Our findings suggest that those workers who participate in vocational training have lower probability of different negative events in their careers including job loss. Moreover, mixture transitions distribution models suggest that for such workers the current career status determined by longer history of previous career events than for those employees that had not any experience of participation in vocational education programs. These results give the evidence that vocational education is important factor of success on the labour market, providing greater flexibility of career paths that is crucial in innovation development of the labour market and economy as a whole. Findings of the study also have important policy implications. Importance of vocational training on individual level suggests that investment in vocational education on societal level will bring positive returns. This kind of education provides the flexibility of individuals on the labour market, through vocational training workers obtain new skills and knowledge that allows them utilizing new technologies and innovations. Development of vocational education may be considered as policy-making instrument that can generate positive economic outcomes.
Based on the materials of an empirical study conducted by the authors, the article highlights the features of the working life of representatives of three generations of Russian workers. Particular attention in the study is paid to analyzing the value-motivational structure of respondents and assessing the role of the informal component in the social and labor behavior of workers of different age categories in modern Russian organizations. It is concluded that the specifics of the working path of representatives of the three studied generations of Russian workers have significant differences due to changes in public order in all the main aspects of working life: attitude to the choice of profession, informal relations at work, expectations of employees from the employer, trade union, government and team, valuable orientation and labor motivation. However, there are a number of common points - universal values inherent in each generation, despite socio-economic and political changes.
This article is dedicated to studying the condition and characteristics of Russian youths’ behavior in the labor market during economic crisis. The analysis is based on data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey — Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE). It is revealed that the negative aftermath of the economic crisis, as well as expectations for the further decline of the economic situation, has undermined youths’ confidence in the labor market. They find themselves in an especially vulnerable position when enterprises shut down or in the case of job cuts. Opportunities for finding a job in the field of secondary employment have narrowed out, and there has been an increase in the amount of young people who are willing to work without signing an employment contract, who are ready to accept unfavorable working conditions. There is an acute sensation of incongruity between the demand for qualified workforce and those specialties which young people receive at higher educational facilities and secondary schools. The crisis has not only exacerbated many of the problems which young people face in the labor market, but it also has stimulated growth in the activity of young Russians when it comes to overcoming emerging troubles, not to mention it increased their interest in utilizing irregular means of material provision.
Immigration regulation, including labor immigration, is the priority direction of modern migration policy of the Russian Federation. Reliable data, making it possible to carry out the analysis and receive full information on the behavior of immigrants in labor market, is necessary for making managerial decisions on immigration. At that, the quantitative data, available for measurement and analysis of labor immigration, significantly differ by their characteristics. The purpose of the paper is to compare the Russian and international databases (Federal State Statistics Service, Russian monitoring of economic situation and health of the population and European social research), containing statistical information on immigrants in the Russian Federation, to define their distinctive characteristics, to reveal advantages and shortcoming for carrying out different types of analysis. The results of the research offer the possibility to gain a complex impression about spheres of application of databases on immigration and can be used for further deeper studying of processes of immigration in the Russian labor market and development of decisions on their regulation
In the book, the issue of skills formation and utilization in the system of formal education and in the labor market are discussed. The recent mainstream concepts of skills are critically analyzed alongside the less known, alternative perspectives. The book addresses several myths related to skills formation and deployment. The first one concerns the relationship between the level of skills and wages; the second is about the demand on “soft” skills in the future economy; the third one addresses the growth of high-skilled jobs; and the fourth one, the supply-led skills policies. In the handbook, the necessity of a paradigmatic shift from the skills formation towards their better utilization is discussed across the fields of education sciences, economics and political studies. Based on the analysis of recent empirical evidence, the authors elaborate the concepts of social construction of skills, “skills ecosystems”, capabilities and skills, and other. The authors compare institutions and skills policies, including the systems of qualifications, in various countries. Still, most of the empirical illustrations and theoretical concepts presented in the book refer rather to the developed market economies, whereas the analysis of the situation in other countries, in particular, in BRICS, is quite limited. Nevertheless, the handbook is with no doubt of high interest to the Russian readership, as it is, probably, the first successful attempt to systematize and critically reassess the existing knowledge in the fields of skills formation and utilization.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.