«И все такие разные» Академическая неоднородность студентов: анализ, восприятие, практики
This work presents the results of a research of students’ academic heterogeneity in Russian universities. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the system of higher education in Russia from the perspective of universities’ academic heterogeneity (under what we mean the heterogeneity in the level of preparedness and academic performance of students in the learning process), as well as look at the perceptions of academic heterogeneity and the practices used in the cases of specific universities in relation to it in specific universities. Quantitative empirics is based on the Monitoring the quality of admission for 2011-2017 and a qualitative analysis of the cases of three Russian universities, which are characterized by a high level of heterogeneity.
This issue will be of interest both to researchers in the field of higher education, as well as to university practitioners and politicians involved in educational issues.
The presentation considers the problem of the academic heterogeneity among universities freshmen. This problem is widely discussed in circumstances of demographic decline when higher education becomes widespread. As a result differentiation of universities based on the quality of students' freshmen arises: some universities admit predominately high-scored students, while the others have a large variation in students’ preparation level. Universities have to work with non-uniform contingent of students. In Russia the Unified State Exam (USE) is used to admit students to the universities. There are two obligatory exams (Mathematics and Russian language) and different optional exams which students can choose depending on their future direction of study. Scores for USE are the only basis for students’ admission to universities. The points of interest are simultaneously the quality of admission and its heterogeneity. Heterogeneity implies differences in the student’s USE scores in one university. The data base includes USE scores of all students enrolled in all universities in 2011-2012 in the context of different majors. The procedure of academic heterogeneity investigation has been developed with the 5-points scale of heterogeneity levels. There are two types of issues in this research. The first one includes the analysis of academic heterogeneity indicators over years and the classification of universities based on their heterogeneity. The second issue concerns intra-university level and includes the following points: • Identification of factors that influence academic heterogeneity of enrolled students • Analysis of heterogeneity in the context of different majors • Analysis of the dynamics of academic heterogeneity over the years • The university contribution to the dynamics of heterogeneity during the period of education. • Recommendations for dealing with heterogeneous contingent of students. For assessing student’s heterogeneity traditional statistical methods were applied as well as mathematical modeling based on Item Response Theory (IRT). The use of IRT methods allows us to place all the data on the unique metric scale, construct classification of universities on the quality of admission and assess heterogeneity. Despite the differences in the systems of state exams and the academic selectivity in various countries the methods developed can be used to assess the heterogeneity of university freshmen in each country.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.