This book covers the classical theory of Markov chains on general state-spaces as well as many recent developments. The theoretical results are illustrated by simple examples, many of which are taken from Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The book is self-contained, while all the results are carefully and concisely proven. Bibliographical notes are added at the end of each chapter to provide an overview of the literature.
We consider triangular arrays of Markov chains that converge weakly to a diffusion process. Second order Edgeworth type expansions for transition densities are proved. The paper differs from recent results in two respects. We allow nonhomogeneous diffusion limits and we treat transition densities with time lag converging to zero. Small time asymptotics are motivated by statistical applications and by resulting approximations for the joint density of diffusion values at an increasing grid of points.
Recent works propose using the discriminator of a GAN to filter out unrealistic samples of the generator. We generalize these ideas by introducing the implicit Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. For any implicit probabilistic model and a target distribution represented by a set of samples, implicit Metropolis-Hastings operates by learning a discriminator to estimate the density-ratio and then generating a chain of samples. Since the approximation of density ratio introduces an error on every step of the chain, it is crucial to analyze the stationary distribution of such chain. For that purpose, we present a theoretical result stating that the discriminator loss upper bounds the total variation distance between the target distribution and the stationary distribution. Finally, we validate the proposed algorithm both for independent and Markov proposals on CIFAR-10, CelebA, ImageNet datasets.
We consider triangular arrays of Markov chains that converge weakly to a diffusion process. We prove Edgeworth-type expansions of order o(n-1-δ),δ>0, for transition densities. For this purpose we apply the parametrix method to represent the transition density as a functional of densities of sums of independent and identically distributed variables. Then we apply Edgeworth expansions to the densities. The resulting series gives our Edgeworth-type expansion for the Markov chain transition density.
In real situations, the work of project-oriented businesses takes place in conditions of high uncertainty. In particular, the moments of the receipt of project execution time, as well as costs and other factors are yutsya-random numbers with given or unknown to the laws of the distributions. Management capabilities offered by the use of stochastic process models of the current scenario management ene and port-felyami projects presented in this paper.
We consider certain spaces of functions on the circle, which naturally appear in harmonic analysis, and superposition operators on these spaces. We study the following question: which functions have the property that each their superposition with a homeomorphism of the circle belongs to a given space? We also study the multidimensional case.
We consider the spaces of functions on the m-dimensional torus, whose Fourier transform is p -summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of the exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase. The results generalize to the multidimensional case the one-dimensional results obtained by the author earlier in “Quantitative estimates in the Beurling—Helson theorem”, Sbornik: Mathematics, 201:12 (2010), 1811 – 1836.
We consider the spaces of function on the circle whose Fourier transform is p-summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase.