Введение в профессию: психолог образования: учебник и практикум для академического бакалавриата
The first in historiography research of the life and writings of an outstanding Russian educator, a close friend of Vladimir Lenin's father Ilya Ulyanov Alexander Alexeevich Krasev (1844-1921). It extends and corrects the conventional image of Krasev as presented in available literature.
The problem of bribery as well as protection in the course of the defense of a master's or doctoral thesis in Russian pre-revolutionary universities is discussed. Author lays special emphasis on legislative measures undertaken by the government and moves made by the scientific community in order to eliminate this negative issue.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.