Архитектура Сибири XVIII в.
The book ‘18th Century Architecture in Siberia’ is the first ultimate monography about the topic. 18thcentury was very special for Siberian architecture for two reasons. Firstly, it was a period when local builders created unique style, that differs from other regional styles of Russian architecture. Secondly, many of buildings of this period had outstanding artistic value, not only on local level, but for the whole country.
The research is focused on brick churches (more then 200) built between late 17th century when the brick architecture starts in Siberia and early 18th century when the last buildings of local taste appear. Unfortunately, very few wooden churches or brick secular buildings remains in Siberia, so any relevant conclusions about their architecture seem impossible. However, the information about these buildings is included in every relevant chapter. A huge amount of data and photos is collected, specially about buildings destroyed or severely damaged during Soviet regime. Most of existing buildings were studied and photographed by the author. Some of architectural monuments will be published for the first time.
The article investigates changes in the size of arable land possessed by particular peasant’s household in Irbitskaya settlement (Western Siberia). It argues that the changes were similar to those among peasants from Central Russia in 19th century. Peasant’s plots changed the size often between 1659 and 1680; by the end of the period only about thirty-five percent householders cultivated plots of the same size. The dynamics in both eras probably stemmed from variations in the number of adult men in households: households with small amount of arable land either expanded or disappeared (that was more probable). In Siberia, however, most of the median households grew larger, whereas in Central Russia the holdings and size of middle strata households did not change significantly
Based on the administrative and judicial sources of the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts in Moscow, this paper analyses several aspects of activity of the extraordinary commissions in Siberia, which is a major contribution to the strengthening of the monarchical power and the imperial control on the country’s peripheral provinces during the 18th century. The essential mission of these commissions is to pursue the abuses inside the local administration. Finally, through an analysis of the successes and failures of their investigations, various facets of the reality of the Siberian administration, its social universe, the management practices and its relationships with the native people, just after the conquest of Siberia, will be described. In particular, a great effort is provided by the commissions in order to eradicate the fur trade smuggling developed in the border area between Russia and China to the detriment of the interests of the State. During the years of 1760, these commissions contribute to the realization of the Yasak tax reform which gives a new dimension to the Russian Monarchy’s colonial policy. This reform resulted in the improvement of the administrative and financial structures and mechanisms for a better integration of the Siberian territory and people into the Empire.
This publication, edited for the first time in Russia, is dedicated to the famous Roman gallery of Borghese, with a collection of ancient art and sculpture of the New Time, Renaissance masterpieces and works of artists of the 17th and 18th centuries, collected by one of the most celebrated and powerful Italian families and kept in a beautiful palace built especially for works of art. In this space are collected the magnificent sculptures of Bernini, works of Raphael and Titian, paintings of Giovanni Bellini and Paolo Veronese, Perugino and Correggio, Cranach and Rubens and other famous masters.
In scientific papers included in intercollegiate thematic collection, deals with the problems of history and methodology of bourgeois criticism of historicism, as well as inherited from the methodological, historiographical and source-term issues of Siberia during the first Russian revolution, the October resolution and the Civil War and the Great Patriotic War, historiography of World History, U.S. foreign policy and international youth movement. For academic staff and students.
The article deals withe an important phenomenon of the developement of Russian Architecture in the 18th century: the survival of medieval features of the buildings in the remote regions throught the whole century till early 19th century. The author shows how different where the mechanisms of the formal architectural language which help the builders and sponsors to embody the memory of Middle Ages in their Baroque era constructions. Moreover, the author argues that sometimes towards the end of the century, when the medieval tradition was almost dead, the partons and their architects were intentionally archaizing their buildings, creating some kind on Post-Byzantine Revival. The authior argues, this medieval Revival was widespread and important phenomenon, deserving consequently future studies.
The paper describes four little-known buildings of the 1770s — church of the Posolski monastery on the lake Baikal, Trinity church in Yeniseisk, Our Lady of Vladimir church in Irkutsk and Our Lady Hodegetria church in Kuznetsk. Research shows that all of them follow the forms of the Irkutsk school. The architecture of the Irkutsk church does not influence other constructions, while the one in Yeniseisk plays a key role in the formation of the local Baroque style. The ‘transfer’ of tradition appears as a phenomenon, that is not typical for Russian provincial architectural schools in the 18s century.
In 1699-1714 the state financed extensive stone construction, which was conducted by numerous masters from Moscow, Yaroslavl, Solikamsk, Tobolsk etc. in more than a dozen Siberian towns. In Verkhoturie, Dalmatov monastery, Tobolsk, Tyumen, Yenisseisk, Irkutsk and Nerchinsk Monastery we can see extant some kremlins, market centers, office buildings and churches erected in those years. Their architecture represents a fine example of the Naryshkin style of the capital. In spite of certain archaic features, belonging to the time before Peter I's epoch, they look original and sometimes unique, taking into account their complex composition (cross-oriented five-domed top over an octagonal base) or elaborate decor (tile compositions in form of duns). After analyzing these constructions within the general Russian context, on may come to the conclusion that we are dealing with the most advanced architectural approaches of the time that existed outside of Moscow and its environs. The experience of these works in many ways prepared and detremined the success of the grandest construction projecti in 18-th century Europe, which took place somewhat later - creation of St. Petersburgh as teh nes Russian capital.