Смертность от внешних причин в России с середины XX века
The chapter examines mortality from external causes of death in the context of the present stage of mortality reduction, in which noncommunicable diseases and causes of death resulting from external sources come to the fore. At this stage, which has lasted for at least half a century, revolutionary changes have taken place in most developed countries. These changes manifest themselves in the drastic expansion of control over non-infectious causes of death, particularly over diseases of the circulatory system, neoplasms, and other noncommunicable diseases, as well as over external causes of death. The consequence of these changes has been the rapid shift of deaths from the abovementioned causes to older ages, an increase in the mean age of death from them and, ultimately, a significant rise in life expectancy. Meanwhile, Russia has been mostly unaffected by these changes and has failed to provide the necessary growth of control over noncommunicable causes of death, including external causes of death. The age distribution of deaths from major classes of causes of death in Russia over the past half-century has not changed, leading to a stagnation in life expectancy and to an increasing lag behind the majority of developed countries with respect to this indicator. "The second epidemiologic revolution" in Russia is still a matter for the future.
The chapter discusses suicide as a demographic phenomenon. The system of statistical recording of mortality from suicide is analyzed In detail and for a long period. The long-term dynamics of suicide by sex and age is also, investigated. Part of the chapter is devoted to the analysis of spatial differentiation of suicide mortality.
The chapter presents a comprehensive analysis of the class "External causes of morbidity and mortality" of the International Classification of Diseases, 1956-2014. Chapter contains the following sections:Mortality from external causes in the context of general mortality, Mortality from external causes by sex and age, Mortality of men and women by the main types of external causes of death, Age specific mortality from main external causes of death Mortality from external causes and life expectancy.
The chapter is devoted to the analysis of classifications of external causes of death and sources of data about them for long period
Russian society has successfully solved the main tasks of the first epidemiological revolution, but so far, it has not been able to make the second epidemiological revolution. This is evidenced by high mortality from external causes. Its reduction is one of the main and urgent tasks, without solution of which the lag of Russia from other countries in terms of life expectancy will continue.
The chapter contains the following chapters:Homicide in a historical context Homicide as a cause of death in ICD Long-term dynamics of mortality from homicide in Russia Age-sex peculiarities of mortality from homicide Temporal characteristics, causes, components Factors influencing on mortality from homicide, and prevention Regional differences in mortality from homicide in Russia
The chapter examines the place of accidental alcohol poisoning in the ICD and the contribution of mortality from accidental alcohol poisoning to mortality from external causes. The relationship between mortality from accidental alcohol poisoning and alcohol consumption in Russia is analyzed. The level and dynamics of mortality from accidental alcohol poisoning in Russia by sex and age, the impact of mortality from accidental alcohol poisoning on the dynamics of life expectancy, regional inequality in mortality from accidental alcohol poisoning are investigated.