Компьютерная лингвистика и интеллектуальные технологии: По материалам ежегодной международной конференции «Диалог» (Москва, 31 мая — 3 июня 2017 г.). Вып. 16 (23): В 2 т.
A software system is presented which is designed to train learners in producing the basic intonation patterns of Russian speech. The system is based on comparing the melodic portraits of a reference sentence and a sentence pronounced by the learner and involves active interaction of the learner with the system. While parametric representation of intonation features of the speech signal faces fundamental difficulties, the paper shows how they can be overcome. The basic algorithms of analyzing and comparing intonation features, usedintheproposedlearningsystem, arepresented. Thefeaturesoftheacoustic database composed ofreference sentences and used in the learning system are presented. The set of reference sentences represents intonation patterns of Russian speech (IP1 to IP7) and their basic varieties. The system’s interface is presented and the results of system operation are illustrated.
The paper considers the less known aspects in the functioning of Russian lexical “xeno” markers, in particular, of the particle jakoby ‘allegedly, ostensibly’. Traditionally described as expressing the falsity of a proposition contained in somebody’s utterance, in conjunction with a negative assessment of the utterer as aware of its falsity, jakoby displays very different usages in the language of contemporary mass media. Namely, it is frequently used as a mere marker of evidentiality, without an obligatory assessment of the proposition as false or of its source as untruthful. In fact, it can even be used to refer to statements that are treated as true within the very same text, only to indicate that the source of this information is not the writer herself but somebody else (e.g., a different news agency), in what might be termed as “safety” strategy. Besides, jakoby in its mass media usages demonstrates unusual syntactic behaviors, namely shifts in scope, where it is placed before the speech verb rather than before the challenged proposition: jakoby utverzhdat’, chto P ‘jakoby claim that P’ instead of utverzhdat’, chto jakoby P ‘claim that jakoby P’. However, the study of the Russian-English parallel corpus reveals that these usages are not as unusual as they may appear. In Russian translations of English texts jakoby sometimes functions as a translation of the English supposedly, allegedly, ostensibly or other (e.g., verbal) markers of uncertainty, but more frequently occurs with no apparent stimulus in the source, merely to mark indirect quotation. It appears therefore that there is a certain need in the Russian language for a neutral evidentiality marker. It is occasionally filled with jakoby, which in this case displays a tendency for grammaticalization: it expresses that the source of information is other than the speaker herself (but contains no other semantic components), and takes syntactic scope over the speech verb instead of the proposition it challenges.
Negative and positive polarity items (NPIs and PPIs) are one of the well-explored topics in formal semantics and typology. However, the phenomenon of polarization is only addressed on a very limited linguistic material, such as indefinite pronouns (some vs. any), temporal adverbs (yet vs. already), certain idioms (not to lift one’s finger), expressions of attitude (would rather, unfortunately). The main focus of polarity research are licensing contexts, or contexts that allow to use NPIs or PPIs, respectively. The current paper introduces considerable new body of NPIs and PPIs, explores semantic underpinnings of polarization, demonstrates that polarization is an allpervasive property of language and shows that it is a scalar feature. The paper provides evidence for the fact that polarization is a regular phenomenon in polysemy, especially in verbs, where it characterizes single senses of polysemous words rather than words as a whole. It further establishes semantic connections between the phenomena of negative and positive polarization. The degree of polarization depends on semantic structure: the more “weighty” is the modal frame, the more polarized an item is.
The paper presents a tentative scheme for analyzing and annotating factors that contribute to metaphoricity of verbs.We suggest a wider (in comparison to the VU Amsterdam Metaphor Corpus) inventory of metaphoricity factors which aims to capture the subtle aspects that contribute to metaphoricty in real-world data and which have been disregarded in the attempts to model it in corpus-based studies. The extended inventory includes nonbasic meaning, semantic shifts, newly attested meanings, morphological motivation, switch in the semantic class of the verbal argument from animate to inanimate (different types of personification) and from concrete to abstract, transformations in construction, metonymic argument, participation in idioms, and conceptual mapping. We also attempt to describe the dynamic interactions of these factors within a sentence, and the complex structure of these interactions. The evidence is drawn from 2,036 occurrences of 100 Russian verbs sampled from the Russian syntactically annotated corpus SynTagRus.