Аналитические обзоры по основным направлениям развития высшего образования. Вып.7
At the institutional determinants of inequality of opportunity in quality higher education. The author of the main directions of the necessary institutional reforms to improve the accessibility of higher education in Russia.
The paper “Higher Education System in Russia: reform process and dynamics of internationalization” was prepared by the team of experts from the National Training Foundation (Moscow, Russia) as part of a larger research project “A comparative analysis: Challenges and opportunities for large higher education systems”.
The implementation of this large-scale project has allowed us to evaluate the dynamics of the national higher education system within a broader international context, as well as to compare its recent trends with other countries’ experience. The cross-cultural format of the comparative study, as well as the pressing character of the issues dealt with, have brought the topic of internationalization to the subject of a special debate and turned it into a possible direction for future joint work.
As the history of the Russian education system evolves, increasingly complex public systems and organizational structures lead to significant levels of systemic diversification. It is characterized by the presence of both strong, internationally recognized universities, and a large number of institutions that focus only on the national and even regional levels. Thus, it is logical that the approaches to the development and evaluation of the internationalization process should be differentiated as well.
The Ministry of Education and Science of Russia adopted such an approach, initiating a number of comprehensive strategic projects to form and support different elements of the higher education structure. In 2013, the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia initiated the “5-100” project in order to develop world-class universities. The goal of this strategic project is to increase the international competitiveness of leading Russian universities and have five of them included in the Top 100 of international ratings by 2020.
Thus, the leading role of the state strategic actions – such as the creation of the “5-100” project – remains persistent in the internationalization process. However, despite the fact that the development of the higher education system in Russia was historically dominated by the state, current institutional trends prove an emerging balance between state-private actors. The country’s state education policy is focused on enhancing the autonomy of state universities and on reducing the normative barriers that prevent universities from flexibly responding to the changes in the educational service market.
More autonomous higher education institutions are able to form their own ways in achieving the goal of internationalization within a given structure of incentives. This dual institutional development will continue to influence the future of the internationalization process in the higher education system of Russia.
This article presents the results of analysis of representations of young people constructed in newspapers and academic journals concerned Russian higher education. The main focus is the specificity of representation of young people in central Russian newspapers
The article presents the current practices of system of remuneration for university teaching staff in higher educational institutions in Russia. The research was based on 51 in-depth interviews in the 6 universities and included the analysis of 100 universities’ local acts of the wage system. The main question of the article is: what are the differences in the remuneration systems in the 6 higher education institutions and why these differences occur. We claim that the universities’ remuneration systems are formed under the impact of 4 factors: 1) external formal accountability to the federal and regional governments; 2) strategic goals of the university (which are often formed as a university response to external accountability); 3) the financial resources of the university; 4) its internal features: the number of university teaching staff, centralized or decentralized management, the number of departments of the university and its’ profiles.
Modernisation, innovation, économie de la connaissance : des mots d’ordre que les autorités russes ne cessent de marteler sous les présidences successives de Vladimir Poutine et de Dmitri Medvedev. Les universités sont au coeur de cette stratégie d’Etat, qui doit permettre au pays de ne plus dépendre exclusivement de la rente énergétique. L’enjeu est aussi de replacer l’enseignement supérieur russe au sein du marché mondial de l’éducation, en attirant des étudiants étrangers et en revalorisant l’image du pays. Mais ces ambitions nationales et internationales sont-elles encore à la portée des établissements supérieurs russes éprouvés par les années de transition post-communiste, longtemps sous-financées, se partageant des étudiants de moins en moins nombreux ? La réforme profonde, engagée au milieu des années 2000, atteindra-t-elle son objectif de placer quelques universités russes dans le Top-100 des classements internationaux ? Cet ouvrage propose une analyse de la situation et des perspectives de l'une des meilleures universités nationales - Université fédérale de l’Oural. Les auteures, deux chercheuses russes et françaises, se sont appuyées sur des entretiens afin d’appréhender au mieux les transformations en cours au sein de l'URFU et perspectives de l'universite.
The article is devoted to the problem of introducing, changing and trajectories of further development of the higher education state standard in public and municipal governance (bachelor and 5-year specialist programs). The basic reasons for transition from 5-year program towards bachelor one have been discovered. Division of bachelor degree programs in public and municipal governance and management is argued on the basis of their competences difference. Further preserving of the state standard for the bachelor degree in public and municipal governance and unified development of the bachelor curricula in different Russian universities are not found possible. Likely trends of their divergence have been traced. The complicated way of formation of the public administration bachelor program in the Higher School of Economics has been presented as an example.
Papers, presented at the 5th Annual ASEE International Forum (June 25, 2016. New Orleans, Louisiana, USA)
The article describes transformations of the Russian education system during the past decades and discusses the role of the Bologna process, and particularly the introduction of a new degree system, in the course of the higher education reforms. Two new types of the Russian universities introduced – federal universities and national research universities – should become engines in the realization of the tasks under reform. The role of universities and their development programmes increases, a new funding model should give more autonomy to the HEIs and secure sustainability in the implementation of their development strategies. The Bologna process has definitely served as a catalyst in the course of the modernization of the Russian education sector and everybody would benefit if it were more coordinated with general reforms.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.