Философия. Язык. Культура
The starting point of reference in the article is the iconological analysis, as it was formulated by Aby Warburg (1866-1929). In contrast to those, who claim that only one of two selected by A. Warburg aspects of the method – «apollonian» and «dionisian» – was developed, the thesis of the article, based on the material concerned with the questions of history of medicine, published in the «Journal of Warburg and Courtauld Institutes», outlines the stability of the method in its diversity. The emphasizing of two tendencies, following the development of the iconology: one of them was offered by Erwin Panofsky (1892-1968) and was developed in the direction of increasing the proportion of the structuralism theory, the other, the variation of the history of ideas, was focused on the investigation of magic and hermetic practice – confirms the thesis.
The article draws on a series of 14th-15th centuries medical texts which belong to the genre called «Advises against the plague».Our study demonstrates how the half forgotten Tuscan physicians – Gentile da Foligno, Franceschino da Collignano, Niccolò da Burgo – put forward the «pneumatological» etiology of the infections (conception of the «corrupted air» and infection of the spiritus); we set forth the hypothesis according to which this problematization of this intermediary level between the spiritual and the corporeal will largely contribute to the constitution of the «twinkling» idiom of the Marsilio Ficino's platonicizing medicine.
This study deals with the reception of Edmund Husserl's phenomenology in Martin Heidegger's fundamental ontology. The study targets those elements common to the two philosophic systems that explain how the phenomenology influences the launch of Martin Heidegger's basic philosophic attitudes, namely, Husserl's theory of intentionality and perception, material a priori and categorical contemplation, and specifically Husserl's transcendental philosophy.
In this paper it is outlined a hypothesis about particular conceptual place of «literature» within the philosophical hermeneutics of H.-G. Gadamer. It is possible to talk about the accentuation of literature as a basic category in the context of ambiguous but also multifunctional meaning development of the concept of literature. The purpose of the paper is to show how the relative to this elaboration thematic lines are corresponded with the main principles of philosophical hermeneutics.
This paper focuses on the analysis of the devil’s image created in the tract «Processus sathanae contra genus humanum» which is attributed to the medieval scholar and jurist Bartolo of Sassoferrato (1313/1314-1357). This character has received several interpretations: he can be viewed as a satire on the Antipope, be an element of an edifying plot of the righteous processual prosecution, or take a part in the ideal medieval judgement.
What role does play the notion of action in the Ricoeur’s phenomenology of ethical and moral oneself? How does the ethical oneself become an actor? How does the notion of action help Ricoeur to formulate the phenomenological picture of political entity? The answers on these questions organize the base of this research and refer to such names as Aristotle and Hannah Arendt, who take a significant influence to Ricoeur by his creating the concept of ethical and moral oneself.
This paper reviews the fundamental statements of Rene Thom's (1923 – 2002) theory of morphogenesis. This theory is also known as a «theory of catastrophes», based on reinterpretation of Aristotle's concept of form, which is founded on research of fundamental characteristics of geometrically described space comprehended as a substance (hyle) of things, theoretical biology and phenomenology.
Framing effect is one of the cognitive biases connected to effect of the wording on process of decision-making. To what degree do Russian language speakers demonstrate the effect? What kinds of sentence structures show the effect more clearly than others? Finally, what conclusions can be drawn about human cognitions based on phenomenon of the framing effect and general cognitive biases existence?
The aim of this paper is to reveal the methodology of Nelson Goodman’s aesthetic cognitivism illustrated through his theory of exemplification. Alongside with analysis of the most significant features of this theory, an attempt to integrate it with Goodman’s theory of aesthetic experience is provided. This gives some potential for the examination of symbolic and referential functions of the arts as interworking with aesthetic perception; this is a possible way to avoid both linguistic reductionism and traditional aesthetics’ presuppositions.
The article focuses on the problem of precarity in postoperaist theory. There is an attempt to demonstrate some debatable theoretical aspects which can be found in the projects of representatives of ontology of abundance – from Deleuze to accelerationism. The idea of nomadicism which we meet in the context of Deleuzian philosophy is problematized. For Virno, Negri and other postoperaist thinkers nomadicism is emancipatory. But its resemblance to the late-capitalist ideology of dynamism is evident.
The deep split between analytical and continental philosophy of consciousness is now observed. One can reproach the continental philosophy with rare discussions of philosophical problems of physics and neuroscience. The analytical philosophy in turn actually stopped on Kant and Aristotelean logic since Schelling and Hegel created more difficult dialectic logic. The consciousness is unnecessary for this reason in analytical tradition that leads to many paradoxes in thought experiments relate to philosophical zombie (Chalmers, hard problem of consciousness) and the Chinese room (Searle). The article is purposed to show what even quantum ontologies (last hope for many analytical philosophers) can't solve the hard problem of consciousness. Only Sartre, Berdyaev and Heidegger's existential ontologies which are inherited dialectic logic of the German philosophy can try to approach to a solution of the problem of consciousness.
This paper outlines the phenomenon of «fear» as a component of Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) philosophy. The author makes an attempt to submit the concept of the «rational» fear as the basis of political philosophy of the English philosopher, with a special attention given to some «problematic» place of this concept.
This paper outlines the essential aspects of the essence of moral duty. We are coming to the necessity of analyzing such subject through asking may be the hardest question in moral philosophy about the nature of the Good. To make the essence of moral duty clearer we turn to such thinkers as Wittgenstein, Kant, Scheler, Putnam.
This paper is concerned with the theme of salvation in the philosophy and theology of Mordecai Kaplan – an American-Jewish thinker of the XX century and the founder of the Reconstructionist movement in modern Judaism. The notion of salvation is the key element of Kaplan’s philosophy and its analysis is essential for understanding and studying Kaplan’s ideas. Other tasks facing the author of this article include a brief description of Kaplan’s biography, his views on the nature of phenomenon and religion, the main aspects of the Reconstructionist project.
This article is about an episode of dispute between jansenits and jesuits in seventeenth century France related to the rhetoric and ethic in christian polemic. The question was if it is possible to use raillery while debating theological matters. The analysis of one of the textes written by influent jansenits theologian, Antoine Arnauld, shows that he allows jokes and railleris in the polemic if only three conditions are respected. First of all, the raillery must be based on true facts. The use of satirical devices must also be justified by the situation. Finally, the polemists who uses raillery and satire as a part of his argumentation shoul sincerely wish the correction and salvation of his opponent.
In this article I examine the «sensual lexicon» of Jan van Ruusbroec’s spiritual texts. Mostly I focus on the concept of desire – the central point is «begheerte» as well as its synonyms in the Middle-Dutch texts and Latin translations by Wilhelm Jordaens, Greet Grote and Laurentius Surius. The special emphasis is attended to the Latin translation of the dualistic concepts and lexical games.
In this paper I try to anylyze the phenomenon of religious faith as a specific form of life in Kierkegaard's and Wittgenstein's philosophy and to demonstrate their closeness in matters of personal faith and of true Christianity.
The work focuses on the conceptualization of migration as one of the central topics during election campaign for Moscow Mayor-2013. Strategy of target audience segmentation is under scrutiny: part of the audience becomes an «outgroup».Cognitive metaphor analysis as well as critical discourse analysis of all electoral programs demonstrates that all the candidates, notwithstanding their popularity and political views, intended to get electoral support through separation and stigmatization of a certain audience segment – migrants – which could have been their potential electorate as well.
This paper deals with the concept of «subject» at stake in Jacques Rancière’s political philosophy and with a very ambiguous interaction between the philosophical tradition and the contemporary context that its employment establishes. Not only it investigates the reasons for which the French philosopher still uses this term despite its most severe critique, but it also brings into a question the charge of philosophical elitism that the notion of the «subject» might be bearing of.
The article is devoted to Kant's transcendental arguments as the essential foundation of his transcendental philosophy. It presents two formal models of transcendental argument and explicates additional conditions that Kant imposes on the use of transcendental argument. In the article also be shown the relationship (and similarity) transcendental argument in philosophy and reasoning in science (Hempel–Popper's deductive-nomological model of scientific explanation) and theology (ontological argument for the God’s existence).
The article examines one of the phenomena of the medieval Paris – the so-called «Cries of Paris» (advertising of street dealers), which starting from the 13 century, gradually penetrated into literature. The paper presents an analysis of the function of the «cries of Paris» in L. Shpitzers and M.M. Bakhtin’s theories.
This paper deals with L. Wittgenstein’s philosophy of language. Author examines the legitimacy of Wittgenstein’s ideas for contemporary pragmatism and references for his philosophy in H. Putnam’s late works. The seeming contradictions between the theories of two philosophers are demonstrated. Nevertheless, it is argued that Wittgenstein’s epistemology and ontology has intellectual relevance for Putnam’s project. The late concepts worked out in «Philosophical Investigations» are the key ones for interpretation of realism in Putnam’s way.
This paper considers Barry Smith’s substitutional theory of art as way to overcome the difficulties of Meinongian theories, difficulties connected with the polysemy of meaning of the notion «existence». On the contrary Smith’s theory deals with the acts of cognition (not objects), and this could help us to solve Meinongian problems, especially when we are trying to explain the work of our mind with the pieces of art. Smith’s theory has a lot in common with phenomenological conception of Polish philosopher Roman Ingarden. So it also is useful to analyze these theories and to decide, whether Smith’s theory could be considered as phenomenological.
The article considers Nietzschean story of the origins of morality and state in his enterprise of the genealogy of moral subject. Authentic subjectivity possessing the courage to promise, accuses the obliviscence of the weak, whose subjectivity emerges from repression of this violence into the imagery. Ressentiment and abnegation of the slave's subjectivity form his passionate attachment to the sublimation of his willings, self-referring by the sovereign imagery suppression. Moral community is considered as institutionalized in the totality of language, freed from the subjects' confessions on abnegation and their attachment to the latter.
The idea of transformation of war is now one of commonplaces in philosophy of war and political thoughts. Changes in the field of power politics are associated with the decline of the state project as it was described by modern era political theory. Classical type of war was defined by high degree of regularity and was associated with the state that was the sole bearer of rights of war and peace. "New wars" appeared in the 20th century and were caused by different processes: monopoly on the use of force that was lost by the state, privatization of political sphere and globalization. However, according to the author, these processes rather show the transformation of political sphere and do not affect the essence of war that remains unchanged.