Экономика и предпринимательство
Using the historical method in the book examines the impact of entrepreneurship on the economy through a complex system the relationship between entrepreneurship, competition and innovation. The focus is, of course, given to entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship. Generalizing considerations about the businessman from economics, psychology and sociology, which is based on the life-cycle model of entrepreneurship. Through the prism of growth in venture capital are considered organizational forms of business activities and various forms of formal and informal business associations. Comply with federal state educational standard of higher education of the fourth generation. For students of the academic bachelor in "Management", but it can be useful to undergraduates, postgraduates and doctoral students involved in various aspects of business in today's economy.
The achievement of high level of business activity is inseparably connected with the конъектурой market, with the creation of the state and municipal authorities of favorable conditions for the activities of the business elements and the ability of business to form their consolidated position, which is the basic element of the state policy and the formation of civil society. In this connection, the priority directions of research and the objectives, which the authors have set before us in the work of the steel analysis and evaluation, by the example of Nizhny Novgorod region, the regional business associations, models, forms, and the evolution of their relations with the regional authorities, business associations, Federal and municipal level and other aspects of their development.
The paper uses the evidence from Russia to analyze the arrangements for interaction between foreign firms and key national partners in the countries of their operations. We identify the main stages and factors that were driving the evolution of the two main channels of collective action for foreign firms in Russia over the last 25 years – the Foreign Investment Advisory Council under the Office of the Russian Prime Minister and foreign business associations. We also provide the comparative analysis of the effectiveness of these two main channels, as well as highlight the factors contributing to higher effectiveness of individual foreign business associations under the current Russia’s circumstances.
We show that political rather than economic or institutional factors play a more significant role in explaining the changes in the effectiveness of collective efforts of foreign firms. Russia’s experience suggests that the mechanisms of interaction between foreign business and the authorities can work effectively only if there is mutual interest in such interaction. In Russia since the mid-2000s there have been relatively favorable political conditions for the dialogue between the Government and foreign firms, and the respective interaction mechanisms produced some positive effects regarding e.g. attraction of additional foreign investment inflows and modernization of the regulatory framework. However, with worsening the political situation in 2013, political priorities of the Russian Government became markedly more important than the economic ones, and thus, the effectiveness of the existing instruments for collective action of foreign firms significantly decreased. One consequence of this has been the greater willingness of foreign business associations to cooperate with Russian business in order to promote jointly a pragmatic reform agenda.
Entrepreneurship and innovation are the main drivers of economic development today. The book explores the two in depth, at both the national and regional levels, using a variety of methodologies. The contributors discuss the subject from a policy perspective, with case studies from a host of countries including new member states of the EU as well as established EU member states and non-EU countries like Russia. Three parts of the book focus on innovation, entrepreneurial activity and regional development, and entrepreneurship and SME policy.
In Building Business in Post-Communist Russia, Eastern Europe, and Eurasia: Collective Goods, Selective Incentives, and Predatory States Dinissa Duvanova discusses a “theory of defensive organizations”. Duvanova proposes this theory as an alternative to the theory of interest groups by Olson, Stigler et al. The theory of defensive organizations arises from the critique of the view of business associations as lobbyists caring only for their own interests. Duvanova uses quantitative data from 27 countries in Eastern Europe and Eurasia and qualitative data about the situation in Russia, Ukraine, Croatia and Kazakhstan in order to show that the experience of post-communist countries does not correspond to the predictions of the theory of interest groups. The author sets out to examine and counter the following myths about business associations, including: (1) business associations are a consequence of good institutions; (2) they are not needed in countries with the high level of corruption; (3) they act as cartels seeking to price collusion; (4) compulsory membership in the business associations may solve the collective action problem. Duvanova concludes that business associations in Russia and in other countries of Eastern Europe and Eurasia protect their members from a predatory state rather than from a free market. The review notes some limitations of the book: 1) a relatively short period of quantitative analysis (six-year period from 1999 to 2005); 2) an insufficient account of the differences within the countries; and 3) the excessive optimism of the theory. In general, Duvanova proposes a theory which has high explanatory potential, which will be useful for further empirical research. She consciously simplifies the explanatory scheme to offer a formal model that can be applied to problems beyond the scope of this book. Furthermore, the reviewer notes that the theory of defensive organizations does not contradict the theory of interest groups, rather it expands and complements this theory for countries with a recently developing business community.
The article analyses the characteristics of small and medium sized enterprises and state policy towards SME in modern Russia – in the context of some rather unknown for the Russian experts evidences of last decades, formulated in the works of leading world researchers concerning the role of entrepreneurship, its conditions of development and institutional design of the state policy to promote entrepreneurial activity and innovations.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.