The classical cybernetics in the Norbert Wiener’s tradition is nowadays a part of the mathematical theory of complex systems and nonlinear dynamics. Only in these frameworks, building of structures and patterns in nature and technics can be explained and in computer models simulated. Self-organization and emergence became welldefined concepts and can be transferred to technical systems. In the first part of the article, the foundations of complex systems and of nonlinear dynamics are under review. As an application, the building of structures and patterns in complex cell systems, which are subject of system biology, is considered. In the second part, the application of complex system dynamics to evolution of brain and cognition is explored. The research gives us a prerequisite for development of cognitive and social robots, what the topic of the third part is. Neural network structures are not at all limited to individual organisms and robots. In the fourth part, the cyberphysical systems, by means of which complex self-controlling sociotechnical systems are modeled, are studied. The mathematical theory of complex systems and nonlinear dynamics provides us with foundation for understanding of self-organization and emergence in this field. Finally, the question of ethical and social general conditions for technical constructing of complex self-organizing systems are stated and discussed.
The evolutionary model elaborated by Sergei P. Kurdyumov is considered in the article. Some key ideas put forward by him constitute a basis for development of the methodology of sudy of complex selforganizing systems, called also synergetics. Four important theoretical notions form a fundament of this evolutionary model: connection between space and time, complexity and its nature, blow-up regimes, in which self-organization and rapid, avalanche-like growth of complexity occur, evolutionary cycles and switching of different regimes as a necessary mechanism for maintenance of “life” of complex structures. The methodology allows to understand the nature of innovative shifts in nature and society and to show a possibility of management of innovative processes and of construction of desirable future. Some approaches for possible application of this model for understanding of dynamics of complex social, demographic and geopolitical system are discussed.
In the article, the phenomenon of innovative complexity is considered from the methodological position based on the modern theory of complex adaptive systems and of conception of enactive cognition (enactivism) in cognitive science and in non-classical epistemology. From this standpoint, one can assern that properties of a complex system and of a medium into which it is built and in which it functions are determined each other. Complexity, emergent properties, activity and innovative potential of a system and its medium are reciprocal properties, which are built from each other and emerge in interactive interplay. The systems is determined by medium and builds its own medium that, in its turn, influences the system and constructs it. It is impossible to innovate a system, if the medium is not modified, and vice versa. Using the language of cognitive science as an interdisciplinary field, this phenomenon of their mutual connection is called nowadays the phenomenon of enactivism, of active inbuilding into environment. From these general methodological positions, the principles of organization of cognitive, communicative and social systems are considered.