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## Proceedings XIV International Symposium on Problems of Redundancy in Information and Control Systems (June 1-5 2014)

Decoding random linear codes is one of the central problems in coding theory and code-based cryptography. In this paper a generalized supercodes decoding algorithm is proposed. The idea of the new algorithm is to keep a list of candidate vectors having an exponential size instead of tending to zero size as it was organized in the original algorithm proposed by Barg, Krouk and van Tilborg. © 2014 IEEE.

In the paper the problem of metric description of processes defined by two-state Markov models is considered. The class of special metrics is presented, the approach of matching the metrics from this class with the Markov models is proposed. In the special case of simple Markov chain the metric matched with Markov chain for large set of its parameters is given. The metric may be used in decision-making tasks in distributed systems. © 2014 IEEE.

Preface of 2014 XIV international symposium on problems of redundancy in information and control systems(Editorial)

The Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations can first be considered as an institutional network. However, the correlations in the patterns of relations provide another topology: that of a vector space. Meanings are provided from positions in this latter topology and from the perspective of hindsight. Meanings can be shared, and sharing generates redundancy. Increasing redundancy provides new options and reduces uncertainty; reducing uncertainty improves the innovative climate, and the generation of options (redundancy) is crucial for innovation. The knowledge base provides an engine of the economy by evolving in terms of generating new options. The trade-off between the evolutionary generation of redundancy and the historical variation providing uncertainty can be measured as negative and positive information, respectively. In a number of studies of national systems of innovation (e.g., Sweden, Germany, Spain, China), this TH synergy indicator has been used to analyze regions and sectors in which uncertainty was significantly reduced. The quality of innovation systems can thus be quantified at different geographical scales and in terms of sectors such as high- and medium-tech manufacturing or knowledge-intensive services.

The collection represents proceedings of the XVIII international conference “Problems of Theoretical Cybernetics” (Penza, 19–23 June, 2017), that is sponsored by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project N 17-01-20217-г). The conference subject area includes: control systems synthesis, complexity, reliability, and diagnostics; automata; computer languages and programming; graph theory; combinatorics; coding theory; theory of pattern recognition; mathematical programming and operations research, mathematical theory of intelligence systems; applied mathematical logic; functional systems theory; optimal control theory; applications of cybernetics in natural science and technology.

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of Microsoft cryptographic technologies. We review a cryptographic algorithms classification scheme along with Microsoft recommendations regarding the use of ciphers and hash functions. We show how cryptography can be used to solve problems different from encryption, including ultimate data destruction on hard drives, identity management, digital signatures etc. We conclude the article with an overview of cryptographic functions implementation in Windows and.NET Framework focusing on enterprise applications development.

The report discusses the use of National Instruments tools for dependability prediction of electronic devices by simulation modeling. The description of the laboratory bench allowing to develop formal models based on reliability block diagrams, to carry out simulation experiment and to process statistical modeling results, is given as well as an example of this bench usage for reliability prediction of power supply of the lightweight spacecraft.

The study of interhuman communication requires a more complex framework than Claude E. Shannon's (1948) mathematical theory of communication because “information” is defined in the latter case as meaningless uncertainty. Assuming that meaning cannot be communicated, we extend Shannon's theory by defining mutual redundancy as a *positional* counterpart of the *relational* communication of information. Mutual redundancy indicates the surplus of meanings that can be provided to the exchanges in reflexive communications. The information is redundant because it is based on “pure sets” (i.e., without subtraction of mutual information in the overlaps). We show that in the three-dimensional case (e.g., of a triple helix of university–industry–government relations), mutual redundancy is equal to mutual information (*R*xyz = *T*xyz); but when the dimensionality is even, the sign is different. We generalize to the measurement in *N* dimensions and proceed to the interpretation. Using Niklas Luhmann's (1984–1995) social systems theory and/or Anthony Giddens's (1979, 1984) structuration theory, mutual redundancy can be provided with an interpretation in the sociological case: Different meaning-processing structures code and decode with other algorithms. A surplus of (“absent”) options can then be generated that add to the redundancy. Luhmann's “functional (sub)systems” of expectations or Giddens's “rule-resource sets” are positioned mutually, but coupled operationally in events or “instantiated” in actions. Shannon-type information is generated by the mediation, but the “structures” are (re-)positioned toward one another as sets of (potentially counterfactual) expectations. The structural differences among the coding and decoding algorithms provide a source of additional options in reflexive and anticipatory communications.

The collection represents proceedings of the nineth international conference "Discrete Models in Control Systems Theory" that is held by Lomonosov Moscow State Uneversity and is dedicated in 90th anniversary of Sergey Vsevolodovich Yablonsky's birth. The conference subject are includes: discrete functional systems; discrete functions properties; control systems synthesis, complexity, reliability, and diagnostics; automata; graph theory; combinatorics; coding theory; mathematical methods of information security; theory of pattern recognition; mathematical theory of intellegence systems; applied mathematical logic. The conference is sponsored by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project N 15-01-20193-г).

Following a suggestion of Warren Weaver, we extend the Shannon model of communication piecemeal into a complex systems model in which communication is differentiated both vertically and horizontally. This model enables us to bridge the divide between Niklas Luhmann’s theory of the self-organization of meaning in communications and empirical research using information theory. First, we distinguish between communication relations and correlations among patterns of relations. The correlations span a vector space in which relations are positioned and can be provided with meaning. Second, positions provide reflexive perspectives. Whereas the different meanings are integrated locally, each instantiation opens global perspectives—“horizons of meaning”—along eigenvectors of the communication matrix. These next-order codifications of meaning can be expected to generate mutual redundancies when interacting in instantiations. Increases in redundancy indicate new options and can be measured as local reduction of prevailing uncertainty (in bits). The systemic generation of new options can be considered as a hallmark of the knowledge-based economy.

Cloud data storages are functioning in the presence of the risks of confidentiality, integrity, and availability related with the loss of information, denial of access for a long time, information leakage, conspiracy and technical failures. In this paper, we provide analysis of reliable, scalable, and confidential distributed data storage based on Multilevel Residue Number System (RNS) and Mignotte secret sharing scheme. We use real cloud providers and estimate characteristics such as the data redundancy, speed of data encoding, and decoding to cope with different user preferences. The analysis shows that the proposed storage scheme increases safety and reliability of traditional approaches and reduces data storage overheads by appropriate selection of RNS parameters.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability

The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.

It is well-known that the class of sets that can be computed by polynomial size circuits is equal to the class of sets that are polynomial time reducible to a sparse set. It is widely believed, but unfortunately up to now unproven, that there are sets in EXPNP, or even in EXP that are not computable by polynomial size circuits and hence are not reducible to a sparse set. In this paper we study this question in a more restricted setting: what is the computational complexity of sparse sets that are *selfreducible*? It follows from earlier work of Lozano and Torán (in: Mathematical systems theory, 1991) that EXPNP does not have sparse selfreducible hard sets. We define a natural version of selfreduction, tree-selfreducibility, and show that NEXP does not have sparse tree-selfreducible hard sets. We also construct an oracle relative to which all of EXP is reducible to a sparse tree-selfreducible set. These lower bounds are corollaries of more general results about the computational complexity of sparse sets that are selfreducible, and can be interpreted as super-polynomial circuit lower bounds for NEXP.