In our research, we study what macroeconomic factors drive and influence the credit cycle. Also, our study contains four sections with theoretical and empirical parts, in which we describe how to measure credit cycles for developed and developing countries, and then we introduce an important indicator credit gap. Our results show the comparative analysis of credit cycles between different countries with various economic growth, and we built up an econometric model, which shows us the impact of macroeconomic factors according to credit cycles for developing and developed economies.
Major changes are occurring in introductory microwave engineering to geophysics. The paper describes a short-term undergraduate course on microwave communication in the new propagation channel at S. Seifullin Kazakh Agro Technical University (KATU), Kazakhstan. Along with the continuously evolving curriculum of microwave engineering education, there remains a constant issue - the recognized of obligatory laboratory experience. Characterization of telemetry channel was offered to undergraduate students in the framework of research course on communications. It helps students to familiarize with specific application of microwaves in X-band. The main attention is focused on microwave measurements and its limitations, like in industry, different effects at high frequencies (higher order modes, radiation, coupling etc.), influence of scattering etc. Investigations in the new channel of geophysical information transfer became the educational project arise from opportunity given to undergraduates to receive some practice in the microwaves in very short time. It is one more unique opportunity enough to inflame interest of undergraduate students in their possible future career in urgent growing area between geophysics and microwave communications.
IEEE Electron Devices Society Newsletter
The goal of this International Roadmap for Devices and Systems (IRDS) chapter is to survey, catalog, and assess the status of technologies in the areas of cryogenic electronics and quantum information processing. Application drivers are identified for sufficiently developed technologies and application needs are mapped as a function of time against projected capabilities to identify challenges requiring research and development effort. Cryogenic electronics (also referred to as low-temperature electronics or cold electronics) is defined by operation at cryogenic temperatures (below −150 °C or 123.15 K) and includes devices and circuits made from a variety of materials including insulators, conductors, semiconductors, superconductors, or topological materials. Existing and emerging applications are driving development of novel cryogenic electronic technologies. Information processing refers to the input, transmission, storage, manipulation or processing, and output of data. Information processing systems to accomplish a specific function, in general, require several different interactive layers of technology. A top-down list of these layers begins with the required application or system function, leading to system architecture, micro- or nano-architecture, circuits, devices, and materials. A fundamental unit of information (e.g., a bit) is represented by a computational state variable, for example, the position of a bead in the ancient abacus calculator or the voltage (or charge) state of a node capacitance in CMOS logic. A binary computational state variable serves as the foundation for von Neumann computational system architectures that dominated conventional computing. Quantum information processing is different in that it uses qubits, two-state quantum-mechanical systems that can be in coherent superpositions of both states at the same time, which can have computational advantages. Measurement of a qubit in a given basis causes it to collapse to one of the basis states. Technology categories covered in this report include: • Superconductor electronics (SCE) • Cryogenic semiconductor electronics (Cryo-Semi) • Quantum information processing (QIP)
Presents the research results in efficiency assessment of contactless technologies of fare payment implementation on public transport. The project effectiveness assessment methodology has been developed on the synthesis method basis of expert assessments and prof. A. Egorshin's methods. The methodology allows to evaluate several effect types from the project implementation and to perform calculations of the complex efficiency assessment of contactless fare payment technology applied on public transport. The obtained results give a possibility to make conclusion about implementation feasibility of contactless fare payment system and efficiency for each project participants.
ICUMT is an IEEE premier an annual international congress providing an open forum for researchers, engineers, network planners and service providers targeted on newly emerging algorithms, systems, standards, services, and applications, bringing together leading international players in telecommunications, control systems, automation and robotics. The event is positioned as a major international annual congress for the presentation of original results achieved from fundamental as well as applied research and engineering works.