СОЦИОЛОГИЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЙ. Учебник для бакалавров
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
The article presents results of a quantitative and qualitative survey based on opinions of small innovative companies’ directors aimed at impact assessment of the programs implemented by the Fund for Assistance to Innovations – the largest state organization in Russia that supports R&D at small innovative enterprises. The majority of respondents have expressed positive opinion regarding the Fund’s evolution both in terms of widening variety of program and internal processes that the Fund uses for monitoring and evaluation of projects. At the same time, respondents often criticized bureaucratic procedures adopted by the Fund. The authors conclude that activity of the Fund for Assistance has produced socio-economic effects that are at least as strong as those obtained in the course of implementation of foreign programs-analogous (in USA and Western Europe) and even outperforms them by a number of cases. In particular, the support provided by the Fund in 1990–2000s produced substantial socio-political effect by preventing emigration of entrepreneurs. In later years, the Fund started to focus on wider involvement of youth in innovative business. In fact, to some extent the Fund substitutes the underdeveloped commercial (venture and business-angel) funding of high-risk innovations in modern Russia. At the same time, the Fund supports, according to approximate estimates, only about 5% of the domestic high-tech companies and thus is not able to solve radically the main systemic problem hampering the development of small innovative business – deficit of customers of innovative products. As a result, even in the presence of highly efficient state management as it is at the Fund for Assistance, there is an overlay of «state failures» (strong bureaucracy) on «market failures» (weak venture funding).
This article problematizes Internet Studies as a sub-discipline in social research. Internet Studies is an interdisciplinary research field encompassing both academic and non-academic research focusing on the internet and societal issues. The key institutions where Internet Studies develop tend to either be university-based or independent. The article focuses on these organizations and aims to reconstruct their history and areas of research as well as the type of knowledge they produce. The first part of the article is more descriptive and historical, explicating how Internet Studies developed. The author suggests a classification of three key periods of Internet Studies development: the emergence, institutionalization and development of sub-fields, e.g. data science, digital research of different objects such as death, childhood, humanities, arts, and online-research. The key finding of this analysis is that in the internet studies there are no strict boundaries between the theoretical and empirical object. The researchers consider themselves to be co-producers of the internet. The second part of the article problematizes this type of knowledge that is constructed in internet studies, and this part is mostly based on interviews with researchers. The author brings out an idea, that internet studies does not have strict epistemological borders and strong theoretical or methodological limitations; it therefore cannot justifiably be called scientific. As such, the meaning of knowledge becomes problematic. To address this problem, the term “research knowledge” is introduced. This type of knowledge is not scientific, it does not pretend to be disciplinary and is the same inside and outside the organization and in its products. In conclusion, the findings of this research aim to contribute to the development of Internet Studies as a sub-discipline — a sub-discipline which does not aim to study an entity but a transformation of social life due to the internet
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.