Социальная политика: долгосрочные тенденции и изменения последних лет. Краткая версия доклада [Текст] : докл. к XVI Апр. междунар. науч. конф. по проблемам развития экономики и общества
This article explains the main stages and results of economic development in Russia since the early 1990s. It describes the process of the formation and the basic features of a three-sector economic model, as well as the the reasons for its stability and existing constraints on economic growth. The authors consider the most likely scenario for the evolution of the current economic model under steadily declining export revenues. They also investigate fiscal and social risks and alternatives in economic policy.
In upcoming decades, the Baltic Sea States will face considerable challenges with regard to population ageing. In the majority of the countries (Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, the Russian Federation and Sweden), between 31% and 28% of the population will be 65 years or older in 2050. For the remaining countries (Denmark, Estonia, Iceland and Norway), the corresponding numbers range between 27% and 24% (UN Population Division, 2001). This disproportionate age distribution yields significant social and economic consequences, mainly due to a shrinking labour force and increasing financial imbalances within the region’s social security, pension and healthcare systems. Sustainable policies are needed to address the causes and consequences of demographic change, as population ageing will have strong impacts, not only on economic growth, but also on social cohesion (between social groups) and social sustainability (between generations) within the region. Therefore, it is essential to learn more about how to best make use of the resources at hand by fostering active and healthy ageing, and increasing the labour force participation of older people.
In this volume, 11 chapters are dedicated to describe the specific situation in each of the Baltic Sea State countries. The authors are researchers with profound expertise of the national situation of the workforce participation of older adults, whose articles compile the national status quo, highlight pathways of reforms in the retirement system, and provide evidence- based policy recommendations for prolonging working lives. Thus, the discussion paper provides thorough evidence and enables debate of the issues at hand from a comparative perspective, as well as in light of the Baltic Sea States region as a whole.
This book by Jonathan Morduch and Rachel Schneider allows us to be immersed in the life of American families and to discover the most hidden area of family life— financial well-being. Reading this book, it is possible to find out how household income is formed, how money is spent, how savings are made, what kind of debt practices are applied and, most importantly, what problems and decision-making processes Americans have to face on this difficult path. The authors compare the financial path of the study participants to a rocky road, and their lives to a struggle in a world of uncertainty. The researchers show that the main problem for people in the US is not low income but instability, which leads to the fact that families live far from the normal financial patterns for almost half the year. The results show how far American families are from the predictions of Franco Modigliani’s lifecycle model and how misunderstood they remain by the main programs of social support which are mainly built around long-term plans and specific goals such as retirement savings, while families need short-term assistance—to live to the next month. The research topic is, of course, extremely urgent, and its implementation deserves recognition in the methodological field of research into the financial behavior of families. This is an example of financial ethnography, which is embodied in the book and can bring each reader closer to understanding how real families live on another continent and what problems they have to face.
The article deconstructs the frames of homosexuality by society, the authorities, and the homosexuals as a result of the legislative prohibition of “homosexual’s propaganda” on the basis of the search queries interpretations. The anti-gay law has identified two trends with three frames in the perception of homosexuality but did not produce new frames, because the authorities are not given full rights to framing homosexuality. On the one hand, we see the articulation of the negative-attitude towards homosexuality in government discourse and negatively-biased part of society. On the other hand, we can see changes of homosexuals’ attitudes and formation gay-friendly community. Framing focused public attention on the problems of the homosexual community and has opened the possibility to the recognition of sexual minorities. In the article, I propose search analysis requests as a method of framing success.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.