Социальная политика: долгосрочные тенденции и изменения последних лет. Краткая версия доклада [Текст] : докл. к XVI Апр. междунар. науч. конф. по проблемам развития экономики и общества
Russia ’ s government initiated pension reform in 2013 to resolve a crisis: the prolonged recession had created a huge Pension Fund de ﬁ cit that required unsustainable subsidies from the state budget. The article analyzes four sets of in ﬂ uences on that reform: those from above (high-level policy makers), inside (government ministries, legislators), below (civil society, public opinion), and outside (international actors, policy learning). We ﬁ nd that the strongest in ﬂ uences come from above and inside, and analyze the con ﬂ icting policy preferences of key actors on reversal of pension privatization, indexation of payments, and age of eligibility. The policy process is protracted and fails to resolve major issues. Irresolution results from the leadership ’ s effort to avoid blame for pension bene ﬁ t cuts despite the weakness of civil society ’ s in ﬂ uence. The current reform effort has been tentative, halting, and indecisive, indicating a government with a diminished capacity to resolve this major social policy problem.
On the basis of in-depth case studies of four Russian regions, Kirov and Voronezh oblasts and Krasnoyarsk and Perm' krais, the trade-offs among social and economic policy at the regional level in Russia are examined. All four regional governments seek to develop entrepreneurship while preserving social welfare obligations and improving compensation in the public sector. Richer regions have a greater ability to reconcile social commitments with the promotion of business. Regions differ in their development strategies, some placing greater emphasis on indigenous business development and others seeking to attract federal or foreign investment. Governors have considerable discretion in choosing their strategy so long as they meet basic performance demands set by the federal government such as ensuring good results for the United Russia party. In all four regions, governments consult actively with local business associations whereas organized labor is weak. However, the absence of effective institutions to enforce commitments undertaken by government and its social partners undermines regional capacity to use social policy as a basis for long-term economic development.
Growth of social uncertainty in terms of a transformed society creates favorable conditions for the formation of social risks. The authors analyze the problem at different levels of social reality. The wide range of opinions reflects the current at the Department of Theory and History of Sociology MPGU school social-oriented management.
The article deconstructs the frames of homosexuality by society, the authorities, and the homosexuals as a result of the legislative prohibition of “homosexual’s propaganda” on the basis of the search queries interpretations. The anti-gay law has identified two trends with three frames in the perception of homosexuality but did not produce new frames, because the authorities are not given full rights to framing homosexuality. On the one hand, we see the articulation of the negative-attitude towards homosexuality in government discourse and negatively-biased part of society. On the other hand, we can see changes of homosexuals’ attitudes and formation gay-friendly community. Framing focused public attention on the problems of the homosexual community and has opened the possibility to the recognition of sexual minorities. In the article, I propose search analysis requests as a method of framing success.
In present-day Russia, the government’s approach towards the non-profit sector is in many ways ambivalent and contradictory. The Russian government follows two opposing strategies: it largely suppresses independent and potentially critical NPOs, while at the same time co-opting those that function in line with government priorities. The essay analyses the ways in which NPOs have perceived the dual nature of governmental policies and how these policies have affected the non-profit sector in Russia’s regions. The essay argues that, by creating divisions between different types of NPOs, government policies have exerted a negative influence on the internal solidarity of the Russian non-profit sector.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.