Поколения ВШЭ. Учителя об учителях
In this paper we consider the problem of inconsistency between levels of education and work in Russia. The study is based on the data from international large-scale assessments of adult competences (PIAAC), which provides us with the results of competency tests on literacy and numeracy of adults in Russia and the OECD countries. These assessment results are representative for the able-bodied population in each country at the national level. While test scores in the OECD countries show a linear correlation with the formal education levels, in Russia we observe distinctive tendencies. The analysis of the PIAAC data reveals three different inconsistencies. First, there is no linear correlation found between the assessment results and formal qualification in Russia. The increase of competence slows down or stops at the level of higher education, while at lower qualification levels there is no substantial difference between Russia and the OECD countries. The second important finding is that a significant proportion of people with low competences have high-skill jobs in Russia. At the same time, the distribution of people with certain formal qualifications on the labor market is quite similar in Russia and the OECD countries. This inconsistency was hidden for a long time due to low reliability of the most common indicator for both sociological and economic studies in Russia – the level of formal qualification. The third empirical finding demonstrates that both formal qualification and measured competences are significant in one’s employment prospects. However, the difference in incomes between people with low and high competences is noticeably smaller in Russia than the OECD countries. There may be different explanations for this finding. Either employers are not interested in highly competent workers or there is a certain difference between what appear to be the same job positions in Russia and other countries. The interpretation of quantitative results in this article is also supported by interviews from a qualitative project focusing on the life trajectories.
The article deals with fertility in the Republic of Dagestan, which markedly differs from the Russian average in fertility timing: the mean age of mother at the first childbirth in Dagestan is not rising and remains at a relatively low level. And there are significant differences between the ethnic groups in the republic that from the point of the demographic theory seems quite unexpected against the background of the ongoing modernization changes in the republic. Based on the analysis of the data from the AllRussian population census — 2010 and from the survey conducted by the authors in Dagestan, the article shows that the ethnic differences in the age of mothers at the first childbirth are remaining, even among women with high education level and younger age cohorts. Lack of neutralization of the ethnic differences by the character of childbearing in the educated groups of population is quite a rare phenomenon that needs a special explanation. Its possible social and cultural origins are the subject of discussion.
Today the demand is growing for information security experts capable of analyzing problems and making decisions in business situations that involve risk or uncertainty. These skills can be acquired through systematic studying of various information security incidents. In this paper we propose a framework of methods, tools and taxonomies for analysis of case studies in information security field. Our framework allows to study every situation in a formal rather than ad-hoc way, and apply a wide range of threat modeling, risk analysis and project management techniques under lifelike conditions. We illustrate it by providing a case study based on a real conflict situation between a free email service provider and a commercial bank.