Возрастные изменения параметров саккадических движений глаз в норме и при болезни Паркинсона
In this paper, we explain why it is necessary to reform the pension system in Russia and, in particular, to increase the pension age. Moreover, we emphasize the positive consequences of such a reform, focus on potential risks and analyze measures for their prevention, as well as state counter-arguments to the most common objections. It is shown that due to demographic processes, the growth of informal employment and the reduction of average tenure, the number of pensioners is increasing while the population of donors of the pension system is declining. Under such conditions, the maintenance of the existing level of pensions will require significant additional costs. Raising the general retirement age as one of the measures for optimization of the pension system will help not only to maintain the level of pensions, but also to prevent the expansion of transfer payments from the federal budget and the increase of tax burden on the population and business. The reform will improve the situation on the labor market and stimulate the process of active longevity. It is also shown that the arguments against the increase of the retirement age are not well-founded. Several scenarios of the retirement age increase are considered, and the choice of the most favorable way for the Russian economy is made: up to 63 years for men and 60 years for women at the pace of 3 months per year in the first four years of the reform, then 6 months per year. The most crucial tasks which should be solved in order to maximize the social and economic output of the reform are also considered in the paper.
A SPICE macromodel of the SiGe HBTs taking into account aging effects is presented. It consists of the standard core model selected by the designer and an additional subcircuit taking into account the hot-carrier effects. The macromodel was included on SPICE-like simulators. The advantages of SPICE-model version of SiGe HBT are high accuracy of description for device characteristics, convenience to use for IC designers and simplicity of parameter determination.