Исследование стилей жизни: психографический метод в социологических исследованиях
This article provides insight into the state of the judicial system in post-Soviet Russia within social context. It involves results of a survey of the attitude of the Russian citizens towards the judicial system and judiciary. Majority disapproval is determined by the fact that people do not respect or trust courts of law assuming that they are dependent on the other branches and influenced by other political and economic actors. They believe that the judges are not willing to protect citizens’ rights, are corrupt, unfair and inhumane, which determines the accusatory bias of the Russian judicial system. At the same time, Russian judiciary consists mainly of representatives of administrative and bureaucratic professional subculture focused on superior authorities and powers, most court chairpersons have Soviet professional training and experience. The Judicial system of post-Soviet Russia has inherited problems of Soviet justice and is incapable of acting in the social system as an impartial arbitrator and conscience of the state.
In the marketing surveys and applied sociology quantitative estimates are typically based on asymptotic characteristics of sample frequencies. To overcome the problem of heterogeneity of population “quota sampling” method that reflects the main categories of the population structure is commonly used. This paper presents a method of statistical data analysis of categorized sets based on random sampling. The method is based on conditional probabilities for statistics of binary relations on finite sets “observations -- their dichotomous factors”. Compared to the quota based methods, the proposed approach significantly improves the accuracy of estimates for the population and allows obtaining estimates of frequencies for the categories of population for any given classification.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.