Современные исследования карьеры как социального явления: теоретико-методологические проблемы и пути их преодоления
The article offers a critical analysis of the situation in the modern international social science in
the field of studying the career as a social phenomenon. The main areas of research are outlined and
their advantages and limitations are defined. Special attention is given to the consideration of theoretical
and methodological limitations in career studies in the context of social stratification and social mobility;
suggestions as to the ways to overcome these problems are made
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.