Political Machines at Work: Voter Mobilization and Electoral Subversion in the Workplace
We explore how modern autocrats win elections by inducing employers to mobilize their employees to vote for the regime and thereby subvert the electoral process. Using two original surveys of employers and workers conducted around the 2011 parliamentary elections in Russia, we find that just under one quarter of employers engaged in some form of political mobilization. We then develop a simple framework for identifying which firms engage in voter mobilization and which workers are targeted for mobilization. We find that large, financially dependent firms in sectors characterized by asset immobility or slack labor markets whose managers are “core” supporters of the regime can offer their votes to the regime at the lowest cost and therefore are especially likely to mobilize their workers. By identifying the conditions under which workplace mobilization occurs in authoritarian regimes, we contribute to the longstanding debate about the economic bases of democratization. In addition, we explore an understudied means of subverting elections in contemporary autocracies: the use of economic coercion to mobilize voters. Moreover, our research finds that clientelist exchange can thrive in the absence of deeply embedded political parties when it is brokered by employers.
The article is dedicated to analysis and comparison of arrangement and socio-political function of democratic and republican parties of the USA. The main stress is made on ideological vectors of both parties and also on the role of geographical position and interests of the USA population which influence forming of the political platforms of the parties. The main goal of the article is to demonstrate the growth of polarization of American society closely associated with the growth of parties' emphasis on target audience and differences in financial policy.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.
This article continues the publication of results in study of employers' relation to the health protection of their employees that was performed by the National Research University at the Higher School of Economics. An Information basis of the study included the data of sociologic questioning performed in 2010 for directors of big and medium enterprises and organizations of various economy branches. The obtained results are evidence of the fact that 38% of questioned enterprises and organizations entered into contracts of voluntary medical insurance and 10% had direct agreements with medical institutions. In spite of economic crisis consequences only an insignificant part of employers reduced expenses for agreements of additional medical aid provision for their employees in 2010, or decreased a scope of employees by these agreements. The overwhelming majority of employers sow positive results in investments of own funds into additional medical aid for their employees. In a majority of cases the employers embraced all employees in agreements of voluntary medical insurance and completely paid polices. Therein the employer placed the greater financial responsibility on employees themselves the higher the level of professional risk of work is at the enterprise.
The textbook is made in accordance with the requirements for the results of the development of the undergraduate program, approved by the Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation of December 1, 2016 No. 1511 of the FSES HPE in the area of training 40.03.01 Jurisprudence, the level of training is undergraduate. Co-hosts an introductory lecture on “Electoral law and the electoral process in the Russian Federation”, a lecture course, as well as the necessary materials, including tables, charts for the development of the training course "Electoral law and the electoral process", annexes - documents. Addressed to undergraduate and graduate students, undergraduates, teachers, practitioners in order to improve their skills. The team of authors of the textbook Electoral law and the electoral process are laureates of the regional stage (Moscow) of the 2018 All-Russian contest for the best work on electoral law and electoral process, improving the legal and political culture of voters (referendum participants), organizing elections to state bodies authorities, local governments in the Russian Federation and participants in election campaigns
In the article are : the social bases of power as a nation, the nation, the elite, the elemental forces of the political market. It is noted that the idealistic view on social grounds authorities do not correspond to modern realities. Long enough described expenses provisions on the management Board of the nation. It is proposed to consider the rationalist approach in the determination of the constitutions of the social bases of power. The examples of the constitutions of a number of foreign States, in which the provisions of popular sovereignty is not understood completely. Russia proposes changing approaches to understanding the essence of popular sovereignty and representative government.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.