Геоинформационные системы в переписи населения: международный опыт и перспективы использования в России
This article provides an overview of international experience of the implementation of GIS in the census in the logic of its main stages, as well as recommendations for the gradual implementation of GIS in the next censuses in Russia. Approaches towards creation of spatial address databases in the preparatory phase, the use of tablet computers and positioning systems during the census and cartographic visualization of results of the census at the stage of distribution are presented. The questions of confidentiality of census date are discussed.
The new technology used for data processing of population census results is described. The system was recently launched by Rosstat for 2002 and 2010 censuses. It gives the user an opportunity of on-line tabulation any demographic table from micro data with no need to download the data themselves and to set up any software. The examples of the results absent in the official census tabulation obtained by means of this system are given.
The dynamics of the population of cities and regions of Russia for the periods 1989-2002 and 2002-2010. The dependence of the position changes in the system of the regional center - intra Peripherals separately - urban and rural territory
Efficiency of the use of geoinformation systems in industry is formed in many respects: in updating and replenishment of the topographic base for the territorial objects of enterprises; Monitoring compliance with the boundaries of allotments and nature protection zones; quality environmental monitoring; complex mapping of geological formations in the system of mineral exploration; in the planning of capital construction and the creation of infrastructure communications. Digital technologies can significantly reduce the production time and reduce its costs, and digital modeling of processes significantly reduces the number of field tests and experiments. The development of new methods of technical and economic audit predetermines the need to create and justify the most common and objective criteria and evaluation indicators at the design stage of satellite equipment. In order to increase the service life of space vehicles, it is proposed to calculate the possible consequences of electrostatic discharges at the design design stage and provide recommendations for reducing their negative impact. In the studies, a new method for calculating interference from electrostatic discharges in the on-board cable network of spacecrafts is considered. The method makes it possible to reduce the complexity of calculating the spreading of currents along the surface of spacecraft by 2-3 orders of magnitude. The method is based on the idea of building macromodels built on the basis of explicit and implicit methods of Euler. The error in the application of the method is 1%, which is quite acceptable at the stage of preliminary design.
Spatial Data: the Needs of the Economy in the Context of Digitalization / E. Belogurova, V. Vorobyev, O. Gvozdev et al.; The Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography; National Research University Higher School of Economics; Institute for Scientiﬁ c Research of Aerospace Monitoring ”AEROCOSMOS“. – Moscow: HSE, 2020.
On the basis of data for the 1989—2002 and 2003—2010 years, the migration of young people at the level of cities and areas of 19 Russian regions is analyzed. Migration is estimated by the “age-group shift” for the corresponding periods between censuses which provides more accurate estimates in comparison with the data of current statistics. Migration of young people has an expressed centripetal nature everywhere; their migration rate from the province is higher the farther one goes from regional centers. All regional capitals attracted young people in the period under review which has a positive effect on the age structure of their population, and only large cities could retain young people among their population. Migration of young people from the periphery is sustainable; it depends on the common migration attractiveness of regions and reaches the greatest extent in the East and in the depressed areas of the Center. In small and medium-sized cities on the periphery of regions, the outflow of young people almost always reaches the same intensity as in the countryside.
On the example of advocacy support of National Population Census in 2010, some specifics features of public information projects under the existing regime of public procurement are considered.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.