Научно-методические подходы к оценке ролевой структуры семьи
This article considers the possibility of using the author's method of "family social role" for the diagnosis of the role structure of parent-child relationships in a family situation. The authors consider the retrospective studies of role repertoire of parents and children in the family, and represent their own survey in three variants, revealing a different picture of the distribution function of parental roles.
The article considers a problem of evolution of the image of the future parental role of young women as one of the aspects of the development of an integral personal characteristic - psychological readiness for parenthood at key stages in a woman's life - "planning" of the child, pregnancy and motherhood .The author aims to assess the moving forces of the change of images of future parental roles among married young women. The study involved 205 married women aged 24-28 years, who lived in Nizhny Novgorod. For the diagnosis of the structure of role preferences, Vasilyeva E.N. and Orlov A.V.author’s method "Family social roles " (an option of " My future parental roles ")was used. The analysis of the data revealed that the parental status ("potential parent ", " pregnant ", " parent" ) is not a factor of changing the image of their future functional parental roles among young married women. Also, there was determined a list of roles that are universally desirable / undesirable to play by mother in relation to her child, regardless of the type of parenthood . The material presented in this article , may be found useful by family psychologists and counseling psychologists working in antenatal care and perinatal centers.
The article is devoted to stimulating activity of human resources in the legal field. The author defines the nature of human behaviour and types of behavioral responses; shows the influence that law consciousness and legal norms make on the variety of social roles; substantiates the suggestions on using some behavioral patterns while legislating and executing the laws.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.