Чайтья в трех версиях «Лалитавистары»: взаимодействие текста и паломнической традиции
This paper analyzes the use of the word caitya in three versions of Sanskrit “Lalitavistara”, one of the main Buddhist hagiographic texts. The fact of the existence of three versions, one Sanskrit version (IX c.) and two Chinese versions (IV and VII c.) allows you to track the dynamics of changes both in the set and sequence of episodes of the legend, and in word usage. It is noteworthy that the occurrence of the word caitya grows from earlier version to later; over time, a special context for its use arises: "currently existing" stupas are mentioned as a final detail in the narration of some episodes of the legend of the Buddha. This looks like evidence of the interaction of the text with the real-life pilgrimage practice. The coincidence of such evidence from Indian literature with the indications of Chinese pilgrims (who saw these places of worship with their own eyes) shows how this tendency of making additions to the hagiographic text was connected with reality. This can be seen as a manifestation of the interpenetration of Buddhist pilgrimage practice and literature. The development of building stupas under the influence of the developing hagiographic tradition also has a reverse effect on the hagiographic text. It is interesting that the increase in the mention of stupas “coming from the map” in the hagiographic text of Lalitavistara is found in the 7th-9th centuries. Apparently, the need to "fix" hagiographic associations on a real geographical map is symptomatic of the last period of the existence of Buddhism in India when it was already competing with other religious tendencies and practices.