This paper argues that cases, adpositions, and converbal markers need not function as markers of syntactic dependency. It is shown that in Kabardian (West Caucasian), the constituents headed by converbs and postpositions as well as case-marked NPs can appear as independent syntactic predicates, although this may correlate with the degree to which they function as semantic adjuncts: the more adjunct-like a phrase is, the easier it may constitute a syntactic predicate.
In their third installation on the problem of rural communes in the East, the authors meticulously dissect those works and views of Soviet and Russian historians and Orientalists that contain information and conclusions on commune frameworks in China, starting from the ancient times and up to the last dynasty in China – Manchu Qing Dynasty (1644–1911). Basing on the recent book by Leonid B. Alaev devoted to the scope of rural community problems, the authors introduce extensive bibliographical material of the Russian Oriental studies, and reach a conclusion about the unparalleled vitality of the rural community in China.
This second review of the recent book of the famous Russian Indologist Leonid B. Alaev analyzes in detail Alaev’s views on the ancient sources of village communities, Marxist myths concerning Indian community, discussions on Japanese and Thai communities, as well as the monograph author’s breakthrough conclusions on the essence of the Indian community.
The hagiographic story of two merchants who became the first Buddhist donors raises a number of questions concerning the formation of ideas about the role of laity in the community. When referring to sources in Pāli, Sanskrit and Chinese, different versions of the legend are revealed, and their comparison makes it possible to reconstruct the evolution of the legend—to do this, the authors divide the story into separate episodes and conduct comparative analysis. The paper attempts to bring together all the variants of each episode and uncover a variety of related meanings.
In the second part of the article devoted to the hagiographic story of the two merchants who became the first Buddhist donators we continue to consider important episodes of the legend. Analysis of this data sheds light on the problems of the role of lay people in the early community. The narratives about receiving the alms bowl, about acceptance of the benefactors into the Buddhist community, about getting of the relics allow better understanding the concepts underlying the interaction of the monastic fraternity with the Buddhist laity. The study is based on the research of Indian Buddhist texts in Sanskrit and Pali, as well as on Chinese written sources.
Abulkasim Lahuti entered the history of Iranian literature as a poet-revolutionary, who made a significant contribution to the “renewal” of Persian poetry and the development of Iranian poetic modernity. He began his career with Sufi ghazals, wrote civil poems imbued with the ideas of Constitutional Revolution of 1905–1911, and in the USSR became the founder of modern Tajik poetry. He dedicated a lot of Persian lines to the victory of October Revolution, and building of socialism. Almost all his poems follow the classical norm, both in form, and in their narrative techniques. This article focuses on Lahuti’s poem The Story of a Rose, created in 1938 as a private letter to Josef Stalin to convey a private message to the ruler asking to help Solomon Michoels and his Jewish Theater (GOSET). We preface our publication with the story behind the poem; shedding some light on the poem’s goal and the subsequent fate of its author. Dāstān-e gol is published in Persian, with Russian prosaic translation and Banu Lahuti’s verse rendition, sent to Stalin along with the original, and conclude this article with an analysis of the poem, focusing mostly on the rhetorical strategy of persuasion chosen by Lahuti in his attempt to influence the ruler by means of poetry.
This review of the recent book of the famous Russian Indologist L. B. Alaev analyzes in detail some relevant theories, concerning the emergence and transformation of ancient and medieval rural community, including theories of K. Marx and F. Engels, as well as characterizing the main Soviet and Post-Soviet theories of the rural commune, and pre-historic marriage patterns.
THE SACRED TOPOGRAPHY OF BODH-GAYA AND BUDDHIST NARRATION Natalia V. Aleksandrova The paper reviews a complex of Buddhist pilgrimage centers in Bodh Gaya, revered in Buddhism as the place of the Buddha’s enlightenment. The author traces the relationship between the region’s sacred topography and the evidence found in various written sources, analyzing primarily the Buddhist hagiographical literature to interpret the sacred loci in their appropriate context of early Buddhist culture; descriptions of Bodh Gaya from the writings of certain Chinese pilgrims also make it possible to compare the structure of the complex throughout different time periods. The study of hagiographical texts reflecting an evolution of the legend reveals a certain correlation of the narrative with the changes in the system of the sacral sites. The author also examines the evolutionary trends of the Buddhist sacred complex and makes a conclusion about the progressive appropriation of pre-Buddhist places of worship.
The aspect of self-correlation with Tradition in art plays an important part while discussing national and cultural identity. However, a piece of art, created in a dialogue with tradition, raises challenging questions to the viewer about the means of interpretation and evaluation of such art-work. Taking as an example the tea pavilion designed by Japanese artist H. Sugimoto, the author muses on the ways and extent of tradition’s impact on proper perception of the artist’s concepts.