Лучник против гоплита: образовательный путь Геракла в текстах и образах
The article presents the results of an interdisciplinary study of the images of Heracles as an archer, present in the ancient texts and on ceramics of the 7th–4th c. BC. These images give an idea of the change in the understanding of military virtue through the opposition of archers and hoplites. From the corpus of sources, only those have been selected that allow us to present the features of the educational path of the hero, and texts and images of Heracles
performing feats are excluded. Traditionally, the image of Heracles is drawn as an image of a warrior fighting with different types of weapons, but preferring a bow. The kaleidoscope of images of Heracles starts from images of a child who was not afraid to attack the gods with a bow, to an adult hero who often behaved like a child and committed many crimes using a bow. The latter include the murders of two mentors - Eurytus and Chiron. The exaltation or condemnation of a hero for choosing a bow was the result of a number of factors: the development of ancient Greek warfare, the rethinking of military prowess by Homer and other ancient authors, and acute experiences of military conflicts (for example, the Battle of Plataea). Tradition for centuries associated Heracles with a bow, which was either seen as a symbol of an arete, or as a coward's tool, outlining more and more new contours of the hero's paideia.