Инструментарий статистического анализа научной и инновационной деятельности российских вузов
The paper illustrates capabilities of a new statistical tool developed for comprehensive in-depth quantitative analysis of research and innovation activity of Russian higher education institutions (HEIs). The results of such analysis are applicable for planning, coordination, and control of addressed public polices in S&T and innovation. The novelty of the approach and its implications to official statistics is explained by critical review of existing standard statistical tools for monitoring HEI potential and activities. The review is followed by detailed description of new methodology. The main part of the paper provides descriptive statistics based on the experimental tool as well as conclusions on application of these results for more in-depth analysis and for policy advise to Russian S&T and innovation policy-makers.
The paper covers the issues of accountability of higher education institutions (HEIs) in five countries: Brazil, Canada, Italy, Portugal, and Russia1 . National frameworks and their implementation are examined. The special focus of the review is performance-based evaluation and funding. The reflection on outcomes is followed by the recommendations to policy-makers, researchers and practitioners. This paper was commissioned by the Global Education Monitoring Report as background information to assist in drafting the 2017/8 GEM Report, Accountability in education: Meeting our commitments. It has not been edited by the team. The views and opinions expressed in this paper are those of the author(s) and should not be attributed to the Global Education Monitoring Report or to UNESCO. The papers can be cited with the following reference: “Paper commissioned for the 2017/8 Global Education Monitoring Report, Accountability in education: Meeting our commitments”.
One of the current trends of the Russian Higher Education is strengthening participation of HEIs in global higher education. The increasing number of approaches to universities rankings reflects this trend. International and Russian rankings draw close attention and criticism from academic and expert community. Despite the criticism, rankings outcomes are in demand and influence universities’ promotion and their positioning in the global higher education area. Contemporary Russian rankings systems are diverse and strive to satisfy needs of various stakeholders. However, all these approaches are single dimensional rankings that use a composite indicator and weight coefficients. The presented article describes development of a multidimensional ranking system in Russia. This work has been done in the framework of the project “Developing and Approbating a Template Methodology for National Ranking of Higher Education Institutions” implemented by NTF (2011 – 2013). The authors demonstrate deficiency of league tables; prove relevancy of a chosen approach as it considers complexity and differentiation of the Russian Higher Education system, its current modernization, missions and diversity of the Russian HEIs. Drawn on the project outcomes, the authors present development of the national multidimensional ranking methodology: its concept, choice of indicators, the approbation outcomes, dilemmas and decisions.
The article aims to discuss practical problems and inconsistencies of industrial policy in Russia since 2000, to analyze positive and negative experiences, and to draw lessons, which are essential for the new technology-industrial policy.
The evolution of approaches to industrial policy in Russia is considered, which particularly results in convergence between the innovation and industrial policies. Basic state interest groups are revealed, whose interaction determines the industrial policy design. The authors try to make a comparison between two recent significant industrial policy examples: the automotive industry and the nanoindustry. On this basis some prerequisites for successful policies are revealed.
The following main lessons are drawn:
First. World experience shows that the requirements for industrial policy and its opportunities change significantly with time. Such policies in each country and at a given time need new ideas and solutions; it is extremely difficult to replicate the success of the industrial policies of various countries.
Second. Quite successful industrial policy examples are typically aimed at entering foreign market, becoming globally competitive, and attracting foreign investment. The implementation of industrial policy without definite and sufficient conditions for the free entry and exit of major players and without the participation of foreign partners is doomed only to simulate progress, to have strong informational asymmetry, and to create antagonist images of what is actually happening in economy in the eyes of the society and of the public authorities.
Third. The problem of correctly assessing the scientific and technological potential is of great importance for the technological-industrial policy implementation. Numerous assessments appear to be unreliable since they do not take into account changes in business demand for technology. The tendency to use the legacy of past decades sometimes becomes a political problem, blocking some new approaches and the development of international technology cooperation.
Forth. A negative attitude towards particular policies should not be regarded as a “taboo” against studying the related issues. The fact that for a long time in Russia it has been as if “there were no kind of industrial policy” led to the low quality of both industrial policy and its research.
Keywords: ; science, technology and innovation policy; priority industries; priority technologies; interest groups; state institutions.
In this paper, we discuss the methods of endowment management existing in the world and their applicability to the Russian university system. The endowment spending research focuses on the following issues: reinvesting endowment income; identifying the size of expendable endowment income; using the endowment body, not onlyincome; choosing endowment spending policy, rule and rate endowments, etc. We provide an overview of endowment fund financial indicators and endowment spending allocationin Russia. Based on the example of the HSE Endowment Fund, we analyze the use of endowment spending rulesand model of financial indicators for 2008–2014. The University’s Endowment Fund endowment spending policies implement the preservation principle, which may be reasonable in a stable economy. However, the viability of the principle is questionable in the crisis, the more so since the endowment is mostly in rubles. Using net asset valuation methods, the HSE Endowment Fund could provide equity betweengenerations with annual distribution of income in favor of the next and current generations.
Recently there have been widely spread models (classifications) of educational institutions (schools) based upon regularly collected statistical data and a presupposition that all the standard indices incorporated in those models have the same meanings concerning to every possible school. The article questions this presupposition.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.