Эффект визуализации и формата оценочных шкал в онлайн-опросах студентов
The requirements of the «Journal of Educational studies» to the publications with results of development of any assessment tool are set out. The term «tool» is used here as a superconcept of widespread forms of standardized evaluation procedures, such as a test, questionnaire, scale, methodology, etc.
A resonance publication, containing criticism of the quality of Russian polls, is reviewed; doubtfulness of the critical argumentation is revealed.
Historical changes in the treatment of male and female speech behaviour are discussed. The phonetic research was aimed at describing gender specific features of American TV commentators’ speech. A high level of prosodic means mastering was revealed, with no reference to gender.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.