Таксономия торговых барьеров: пять типов протекционизма
This article examines the various motives for the introduction of trade barriers, highlighting on this basis five types of protectionism. If in the XX century "protectionism of lobbyists" and "protectionism of industrialists" dominated, then the period after the financial and economic crisis of 2008-2009 became the heyday of "protectionism of geostrategists" and "protectionism of populists". Finally, the introduction of a border carbon compensation mechanism in the EU may be the beginning of the spread of "benevolent protectionism". The proposed taxonomy of protectionism demonstrates why, despite the consensus of economists on the benefits of international trade, protectionism is still so widespread. It also helps to explain why the main role in the intensive growth of trade barriers in the 2010-2020s belongs to developed countries, which previously were the main supporters of free trade and globalization.