Наилучшие доступные технологии промышленной безопасности (НДТПБ)
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.
In comparison with developed countries the innovative activity of Russian manufacturing enterprises, especially small and medium-sized, remains rather low. At the same time, the determinants of industrial enterprises innovative activity in Russia are understudied. In order to identify significant factors of Russian manufacturing enterprises innovative activity, the econometric methods are applied in the paper. The research is based on the last available microdata of Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS) for Russia. The estimated logistic regression model shows that manufacturing enterprises innovative activity depends, on the one hand, on the features of enterprises activity, and, on the other hand, on socio-economic regional characteristics. The obtained results contribute to the development and improvement of measures aimed at stimulating the innovative activity of enterprises, taking into account regional and sectoral features
This paper examines how export and export destination stimulates innovation by Russian manufacturing firms. The discussion is guided by the theoretical models for heterogeneous firms engaged in international trade which predict that, because more productive firms generate higher profit gains, they are able to afford high entry costs, and trade liberalization encourages the use of more progressive technologies and brings higher returns from R&D investments. We will test the theory using a panel of Russian manufacturing firms surveyed in 2004 and 2009, and use export entry and export destinations to identify the causal effects on various direct measures of technologies, skill and management innovations. We find evidence on exporters’ higher R&D financing, better management and technological upgrades. Exporters, most noticeably long-time and continuous exporters, are more active in monitoring their competitors, both domestically and internationally, and more frequently employ highly qualified managers. Exporters are more active in IT implementation. When it comes to export destination, we find that non-CIS exporters are more prone to learning. However, we cannot identify that government or foreign ownership shows any impact on learning-by-exporting effects.
When a major Russian energy provider introduced a new technology that required organisational adjustment, the company’s management was surprised by the degree of internal resistance these changes provoked. The paper aims to discuss this issue.
The authors took reference to the work on readiness to change and studied how the future time perspective, which connects with early writings by Lewin (1942), would explain the attitudes and behaviour of 148 managers.
The findings indicate that only a small number of employees perceived the future as offering many opportunities and showed willingness to pursue them. The majority of employees are either fearful of future changes, or do not have a strong sense of belonging to the company and hence are disinterested in prospective opportunities within the firm.
The different constructs of the future introduce an emic perspective to the study of organisational change and answer calls to enrich the measurements that are currently in use.
The article is devoted to the theoretical features of innovations in the field of public administration. The subject of the research is the concept of innovation in public administration. The goal is to substantiate the relationship between successful innovation, institutional transformations and their ideological support. The main tasks are a description of the differences in the traditional understanding of the content of innovation and its content in the field of public administration, a description of the factors contributing to or hindering successful innovation in the field in question, an analysis of the relationship between the innovation activity of employees in the public service and institutional transformations. The conclusion is drawn on the importance of the trinity of technological, institutional and ideological innovations in the context of the goals and objectives of national economic development.
The present study is aimed at exploring the role of universities in socio-economic development of a region, undertaking a comparative analysis of efficiency assessment models of universities’ integration into solving regional development tasks in order to determine a set of the most relevant quantitative and qualitative indicators of such assessment and outlining its main stages.
The key method of the empirical study is the method of expert interview. Statistical information, published regional development strategies and materials of applied research on similar topics were also used.
Based on the empirical materials obtained by the authors, major roles that a university can play in the regional development were identified and the ratio of a region’s strategy to a university as well as the peculiarities of its participation in the formation of a regional strategy was considered. The current and potential mechanisms of integration, existing and possible conditions for cooperation and the relevant forms of its organization were outlined; the quality and quantity of the resources and competencies that a university possesses for meeting regional tasks and the possibilities of their improvement were assessed. As a result, there were highlighted 2 groups of factors characterizing a university’s inclusion in solving socio-economic challenges of a region’s development – quantitative and qualitative; there were suggested indicators which determine them and there were defined the main stages of the efficiency assessment of such integration.
When comparing the results concluded with the materials of other research proposals, an additional group of qualitative factors was formed and a previously unidentified group of administrative and information indicators was identified among the quantitative ones.
The results of the study can be recommended to universities and regional authorities to create an effective model of cooperation in the interest of the regional development; the results of performance assessment of higher education organizations according to the proposed algorithm can be used to justify the efficiency of investments in the workings of one or the other university.
Despite the widespread use of project and program management methodologies in various fields of practical activity, they have not yet become widespread in the venture capital business. An attempt was made to find common ground between these two areas that are developing rapidly today and to assess the prospects for their closer integration.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .