Одинокое материнство в России
Based on reliable sources of statistical information and its quantitative analysis, the author address the following questions: what is the real prevalence of the phenomenon of single motherhood in Russia, taking into account different approaches to its definition, what is the probability of transition for women with children from one partnership status to another, and in which direction has changed the average duration of parenting children in single-mother families (since birth and up to age of 18). The paper uses data from the population censuses, vital statistics of births over a long period of time, as well as data from two waves of a large sample survey "Parents and children, men and women in family and society," performed in the framework of the UNECE "Generations and Gender" international comparative research programme of surveys (GGS).
The aim of the article is to outline theoretical directions of maternity analysis on the base of reflexive modernization, discourse, biopower, management and class, and to offer the aspects of their use when studying maternity in Russia. The questions discussed are about how maternity is produced discursively, what the base for modern Western and Russian normative construct of maternity is, being broadcast in Mass Media. Sociological approaches towards maternity class aspects analysis connected with the idea that knowledge and the ways of its consumption and use are distributed unequally in the social space, and with the fact that symbolic practices (including maternity) representations of different classes have different moral evaluations. In the article the potential of analytical approaches usage for maternity study in Russia is discussed.
The aim of this article is to analyze strategies of combining motherhood and employment. For this purpose the notion of work-family balance will be conceptualized. The author suggests that strategies of mixed professional and family duties is being constructed at the level of household and depends on available personal and family resources as well as individual choices of working adults. Because contemporary Russian family policy does not provide institutional supports for working parents to combine motherhood and employment. Working mothers are in search of family-work balance, because child care is the main women responsibilities. Motherhood is still a crucial part of life project for Russian women.
This article presents how motherhood constituted and recognized in the individual experience of teenage mothers.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.