ПАЛЕОЧЕРНОЗЕМЫ ВРЕМЕНИ РАЗВИТИЯ СРУБНОЙ КУЛЬТУРЫ И ТРЕНДЫ ПОЗДНЕГОЛОЦЕНОВОЙ ЭВОЛЮЦИИ ПОЧВ ЛЕСОСТЕПИ ВОСТОЧНО-ЕВРОПЕЙСКОЙ РАВНИНЫ
A comparative analysis of the features of the chernozems buried under the mounds of the Srubnaya culture (3600–3400 years ago), earlier (4200–3700 years ago) and later analogues (2500–2200 years ago) have been carried out. Also, modern chernozems of the East European Plain central part were studied. The chernozems of the Srubnaya culture period were formed in an environment of noticeable bioclimatic transformations after the period of the Middle Subboreal climate aridization. It was found that the biochemical rearrangement of the profile in terms of the content of soil organic matter outplaced the morphological transformation with the formation of a thicker dark-colored part of the chernozem profile. The automorphic paleochernozems of the Srubny period were characterised by a greater homogeneity of morphological properties (in all studied areas, they were identified as typical chernozems with high carbonate table) compared to their modern analogues (two areas of chernozems were formed – leached and typical). Leached chernozems were formed in areas with lower carbonate content in the parent materials compared to the areas of typical chernozems. The general trend of the Late Holocene evolution of leached and typical automorphic chernozems consisted of an increase in the thickness of humus horizons (by an average of 20 cm) and soil profiles (by an average of 20 cm). In contrast, the thickness of the transitional part of the profile (A1B + BA1) and horizons B (Bk) remained the same. Differences were connected with different depth of leaching from carbonates in the studied soils.