Формирование запроса на социальное предпринимательство в интересах старшего поколения (на примере Томской области)
Revealing the “institutional voids” and “failures” of the market in relation to meeting the needs of older people actualizes the discussion of the necessity, possibility and expediency of compensating them with the help of a relatively new tool for Russia – social entrepreneurship. The aim of the study is to identify the potential demand for social entrepreneurship in the interests of older people on the example of Tomsk Oblast and substantiate the value of this tool both to meet the needs of older people and to increase the degree of realization of their resource potential. Such an opportunity can appear and be implemented only if the demand of older people for the development of social entrepreneurship is correctly identified and a relationship between implementation forms and urgent problems of social policy in relation to older people is established. This study uses qualitative methods (focus groups) for the period from 2016 to 2019 in the format of expert seminars, the participants of which were representatives of the older generation and specialists professionally involved in social policy and the well-being of older people. This study theoretically substantiates the identified opportunities for filling the “institutional voids” in ensuring the well-being of older people with the help of social entrepreneurship as a mechanism linking social needs with business values. This business model is based on the creation and increment of social value, but is also subject to financial payback. The practical value of the study consists in substantiating the rationality of sequential actions by levels of activity for the development of social entrepreneurship to more completely realize the resource potential of older people: (1) state (public); (2) community and business practices for older people; (3) activities by the engaged representatives of the older generation in the interests of older people themselves. At the first, state, level, activity encompasses the formation of an institutional framework for realizing the potential of social entrepreneurship, which involves the participation of the government as a key investor and conductor of important institutional changes in this area. At the second level of activity, the state determines and consolidates long-term “rules of the game” to attract interested public and business structures to be actively engaged in social entrepreneurship to serve the needs of older people. As a result, social entrepreneurship projects can be financially and socially sustainable as they solve problems where traditional social protection measures or health care services are ineffective or even non-existent. At the third level of activity, older people themselves become participants. This level assumes their pro-active involvement in the regional society as active citizens who not only consume, but also create social benefits.