Laboratory Simulation of Charging of Polymers by Beams of Low-Energy Electrons
Abstract—Charging of polymeric samples with grounded metal layer is studied by two main schemes of experiment. In the first scheme, a polymer film is irradiated with the low-energy electrons with energy of 20–40 keV under conditions of absence of grounded metal objects nearby. It is demonstrated that development of breakdown in the double electrical layer on the open surface of the polymer is impossible. In the second scheme, when a grounded metallic mask is placed on the surface of the polymer film in the irradiation zone, discharges are easily initiated and represent spark creeping discharges. A possible mechanism of their initiation is proposed.
We have reviewed the basic results in the radiation-induced conductivity and the bulk charging of polymers obtained by our group during the past 30 years, which are mostly unknown in the West. Special attention is given to a new experimental technique extensively used in our investigations based on an electron-gun technology allowing combined induced conductivity and carrier mobility measurements. Quasi-band and hopping theories of the carrier transport are critically discussed.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.